SynopsisZulfikar Ali Bhutto was born on January 5, 1928, in Larkana, Pakistan. In 1967, he founded the Pakistan People’s Party. He was president of Pakistan 1971–1973 and prime minister 1973–1977. In 1971 he refused to give East Pakistan autonomy, resulting in a civil war and the forming of Bangladesh. On April 4, 1979, he was executed in Punjab, Pakistan, after being overthrown by General Zia’s military coup.
Creation of Pakistan Peoples PartyZulfiqar Ali Bhutto soon decided to come back to Pakistan after some consultations with foreign friends. On 10th December 1967, the foundation of PPP was laid in a meeting at the house of one of the Bhutto’s political friend Dr.Mubashar Hassan in Gulberg Lahore.Bhutto was a feudal lord from background but his politics was centered on socialism. He based his party manifesto on four things:
- Islam is our religion
- Socialism is our economy
- Democracy is our politics
- Sovereignty belongs to people in this world
- The model of this political party, more or less, matched the manifesto of Chinese Communist party.
Political careerIn 1957, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the youngest member of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nations. He addressed the United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression on 25 October 1957 and led Pakistan's delegation to the first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea in 1958. That same year, Bhutto became the youngest Pakistan cabinet minister, on appointment to theMinistry of Water and Power by President Field Marshal Ayub Khan, who had seized power and declared martial law in a successful coup d'état. In 1960, he was promoted to Minister of theMinistry of Commerce, the Ministry of Communications, and the Ministry of Industry. Bhutto became a close and trusted political advisor to Field Marshal Ayub Khan, rising in influence and power despite his youth and relative inexperience in politics. Bhutto aided Ayub Khan in negotiating the Indus Water Treaty in India in 1960. In 1961, Bhutto negotiated an oil exploration agreement with the Soviet Union, which agreed to provide economic and technical aid to Pakistan.
President of Pakistan
New health policy
- The doctors had been instructed that they would write a prescription instead of giving medicine and receive their fee.
- Names and prices of all the medicines had been changed.
- 4-10 medical colleges were established in the country and the quantity of students was increased.
New educational reforms
- All the colleges and schools were taken under government’s custody from 1st September and 1st October, consecutively.
- University grants commission was established which provided fund to the universities.
- Education became free up to metric, from October, 1974.
- National book foundation was established to unify the course in provinces
- On 2 Jan, 1972 all the industries were took under government’s custody by an ordinance.
- The industries which were established by foreign investment were not took under government custody.
- There was a great loss to the national industry by this action.
Banking and bema policy
- On 9 March, 1972 all the bema companies were taken under government’s custody by an ordinance.
- Estate Life Insurance Corporation was established to improve the economic condition in Pakistan
- All the private banks were taken under government’s custody.
- 150-500 acre canal land and 300-1000 acre rainy land, was fixed for ownership limit.
- Extra lands were divided in cultivators free of cast, by withdrawer from the landlords.
- The government had divided official land in cultivators.
- The land was confiscated whose land was on the defense line.
- 100 acre land limit was fixed, which was given after the retirement.
- The cultivators had given the right to sale their land.
- It decided the duty of owner to provide seeds.
- Practically, these reforms were neither applicable for the Bhutto family nor for the feudal lords of Sindh.
- Trade union was established.
- Bonus was given to the workers.
- Monthly salary was fixed.
- Social security was given.
- Residential flats were given.
- Funds were announced for workers.
- 500 rupees were fixed for the burial of worker.
Devalue of currency
- The foreign investment was increased in Bhutto regime.
- As a result, inflation rate also increased in the country.
Betrayal And Assassination
- General Elections were held on March 7, 1977. PPP emerged as the victorious Party. At the behest of General Zia-Ul-Haq, PNA accused government of so-called rigging in the elections. Negotiations with PNA resumed. An Agreement was reached on June 8, 1977 for holding Fresh Elections on October 8, 1977.
- On July 5, 1977 COAS General Ziaul Haq imposed Martial Law unilaterally. The National Assembly, the Senate and Provincial Assemblies were dissolved and Constitution held in abeyance.
- Zia's Military Junta established a dummy government of PNA with CMLA as President. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto arrested on July, 5, 1977 and released on July 28, 1977.
- Re-arrested on September 3, 1977 from Clifton, Karachi, on the charges of a fabricated murder case; again released on September 13, 1977 against Lahore High Court bail. Re-arrested at Larkana on September 17, 1977.
- On September, 1977 the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Mr. Justice Yakub Ali Khan was suspended from service because he had admitted Mrs. Nusrat Bhuto's Petition challenging imposition of martial law.
- On October 9, 1977, Maulvi Mushtaq, Chief Justice, Lahore High Court, cancelled the bail already granted to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto by LHC.
- Mercilessly and despicably murdered on April 4, 1979.
The legacy of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
Bhutto emerged on the world stageBhutto emerged on the world stage as Leader of the Pakistan Delegation to the UN in 1959. To muster the support for Kashmir issue he successfully toured China, Britain, Egypt and Ireland. He also held a series of talks with the Indian Foreign Minister Swaran Singh. He was appointed Foreign Minister in 1963 and remained at that post until his resignation in June 1966. Bhutto made indelible imprints on world community by his inimitable oratorical skills in United Nation's General Assembly and the Security Council. He had the vision to build a strategic relationship with China at a time when it was isolated. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto believed in an independent Foreign Policy which had hitherto been the hand maiden of the Western Powers. During his tenure as Foreign Minister, Pakistan and Iran cemented a special relationship. His opposition to the Tashkent accord between India and Pakistan led to his resignation from the government. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto believed in a Foreign Policy of bilateralism in which no state would be entitled to interfere in Pakistan's relations with other states.
During his student days Zulfikar Ali BhuttoDuring his student days, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had acquired an anti-Imperialist view of the world. He was a firm believer in economic self reliance and political independence themes he expounded in his famous book "Myth of Independence". Bhutto's finest hour came in the reconstruction of Pakistan after the traumatic dismemberment of Pakistan upon the fall of Dhaka on 16th December, 1971. He successfully put the derailed nation back on the track by rebuilding national institutions. His lasting achievement was the unanimous adoption of the Constitution in 1973. He established the Pakistan Steel Mills, Heavy Mechanical Complex Taxila, Port Qasim Authority, Quaid-e-Azam University, Allama Iqbal Open University, Karachi Nuclear Power Plant; thus, fortifying the prosperity, integrity and security of Pakistan. Using his experience as Foreign Minister, Bhutto cemented Pakistan's relation with Afro-Asian and Islamic countries and by 1976 had emerged as the Leader of the Third World. As an author, he brilliantly advocated the cause of hewers of wood and drawers of water of the Third World.
Bhutto was the founder of Pakistans Nuclear ProgramBhutto was the founder of Pakistan's Nuclear Program. Under his guidance and leadership as Minister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources, President and Prime Minister, Pakistan developed into the unique Muslim State with a nuclear capability for which he paid with his life. In his book "If I am Assassinated" written from the Death Cell, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto revealed how Kissinger had said "We will make an example of you". The Pakistan People's Party won the elections held in 1977 with a large majority; but the conspirators soon joined hands with Ziaul Haq at the behest of foreign powers who feared Bhutto's capacity of uniting the Third World countries and sought to punish him for developing Pakistan's nuclear capacity, and imposed Martial Law upon the country on 5th July, 1977. Soon afterwards, Bhutto was arrested and on 18th March, 1978, was sentenced to death in a politically motivated murder trial. The majority of original Court was for acquittal but was whittled down to a 4-3 verdict by the retirement of two judges. Despite appeals of clemency from several world leaders, Bhutto was executed on 4th April, 1979. The great leader of downtrodden masses and a visionary of unparalleled charisma will forever be remembered by his countrymen as Quaid-e-Awam (Leader of the Masses).
Dismembered the countryNegotiating with a power that has dismembered the country was an open-challenge to Bhutto who smoothly convinced India to return the territory and the POWs back to Pakistan.Before this conference, Bhutto and his colleagues did the comprehensive homework as Bhutto had realised that Arabs have still not succeeded in regaining territory lost in the 1967 war with Israel. Therefore, capturing of land does not cry out for international attention the same way as the prisoners do. According to Benazir Bhutto, Bhutto demanded the control of the territory in the first stage of the Agreement which surprised and shocked the Indian delegation. In Bhutto's point of view, the POW problem was more of a humanitarian problem that could be tackled at any time, but the territorial problem was something that could be integrated in India as time elapses. Indian Premier Gandhi was stunned and astonished at Bhutto's demand and reacted immediately by refusing Bhutto's demand. However, Bhutto calmed her and negotiated with economic packages dealt with Gandhi. Bhutto's knowledge and his intellectualism impressed Gandhi personally that Gandhi agreed to give the territory back to Bhutto in a first stage of the agreement. Signing of this agreement with Pakistan paying small price is still considered Bhutto's one of the huge diplomatic success.
ConclusionBhutto got important place in the history of Pakistan. His party lost a charismatic leader but still, Bhutto lies in the heart of every political worker of PPP. He had given two important things to Pakistan,
- The start nuclear program
- The unanimously approved constitution of Pakistan which is the salient foundation of constitution of Pakistan.
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