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Punjab Pakistan History
Punjab Pakistan is the most populated province of Pakistan, with an estimated population of 110 million people in 2017. The Pakistani provinces Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan, and Sindh, Pakistan-controlled Azad Kashmir, and Islamabad form the majority of the transnational Punjab area of India and Pakistan.
It also shares boundaries with neighboring Indian states of Rajasthan and Punjab, as well as the Indian-controlled province of Jammu & Kashmir. Lahore, Pakistan’s capital is a cultural, economic, cosmopolitan, and historical hub where the country’s film industry, as well as much of its fashion sector, is based.
|Self-governing Province subject to the Federal Government
|Local Language Name:
|1 July 1970
|Seats in Provincial Assembly:
|Self-governing Province subject to the Federal Government
|Seats in National Assembly:
|205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi)
|490/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
|ISO 3166 code:
|Three letters beginning with P and random four numbers
The Sapta Sindhu, or “region of the 7-rivers,” was the name given to Punjab in the RigVeda. Ancient Greeks knew this region as Pentapotamia, which meant “area of five rivers,” and in Sanskrit dialect, it was known as Panchanada, which means “Region of the Five Rivers,” as stated in the Mahabharata and Ramayana.
Following the Muslim invasions, the Persians referred to the territory as Punjab that also means “Region of the Five Rivers.” In the seventeenth century CE, the term Punjab was introduced as a combination of Persian words i.e., panj (five) and aab (water), thus signifying the (state of) five rivers, which is comparable to the Greek and Sanskrit names for the area.
In the Soan River valley, Pakistan’s oldest indication of life has been discovered. During the digging of prehistoric pyramids, some of the initial signs of human beings were unearthed here. The Potohar plateau has shown tools dating back two million years.
Several fossil-containing rocks are visible on the surface of the Soan River. It was a part of the 5000-year-old Indus Valley Civilization. Harrapa city was the most important location here. The Indus Valley Culture encompassed much of modern-day Pakistan and gave rise to the Indo-Aryan civilization.
The Vedic civilization flourished along the Indus River‘s length with the advent of the Indo-Aryans. During the Mahabharata period, Punjab Pakistan was named Panchanada. The Vedic era developed in ancient Taxila city.
Prior to the emergence of Islam, a diverse range of faiths including Hinduism, Greco-Buddhism, and Buddhism were present in this region. The Arab Umayyad military, headed by Muhammad bin Qasim, introduced Islam in the territory in 712 when he defeated Raja Dahir and conquered Sindh & Southern Punjab.
The Umayyad ruler was the 2nd Islamic caliphate to be established after Muhammad’s death. Umayyad dynasty ruled it, whose name is derived from Umaya ibn Abd, the 1st Umayyad caliph’s great-grandfather. During the rule of Mahmud of Ghazni in the eleventh century, Islam was brought into Northern Punjab, and the region thereafter became a part of several Turko-Persian & Turko-Mongol Muslim empires.
Geography of Punjab Pakistan
Spread on an area of 79,284 sq. miles, Punjab Pakistan is 2nd largest Pakistani province after Baluchistan. It is encompassed 25.8 percent of Pakistan’s total landmass. Punjab is bounded to the south by Sindh, to the west by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and to the north by Islamabad and Azad Kashmir.
Its historical capital was Lahore. Gujranwala, Rawalpindi, Multan, Faisalabad, Sialkot, Sargodha, Bahawalpur, Sheikh upura, Sahiwal, Jhelum, and Gujrat are some other cities. There were six rivers in undivided Punjab and five of these flow through this province of Pakistan. The rivers from West-East are Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, and Indus.
The landscape of the region is dominated by the Indus River’s fertile plains and its 4 main tributaries, the Chenab, Jhelum, Sutlej, and Ravi which traverse north to south – the 5th of Punjab’s “five waters,” the Beas River, is entirely within the Indian Punjab.
Punjab also has various hilly zones, including the Margalla Hills, Sulaiman Mountains, & the Salt Range, which separates the Pothohar Plateau from the rest of the province.
Punjab Pakistan Climate
The majority of regions here experience harsh weather conditions, with foggy winters that are frequently accompanied by heavy rain. The temperature starts increasing by mid-Feb, and the spring weather lasts until mid-April.
The months of June and July are unbearably hot. Though official estimations seldom put the temperature beyond 46 °C, media sources mention that it exceeds 51 °C and frequently publish reports about persons who have died as a result of the heat.
Population of Punjab Pakistan
More than half of Pakistan’s population lives here and is the world’s 5th-most populous sub-national entity, and also the most inhabited outside China and India. Punjabis are a diverse population consisting of various clans, tribes, and communities.
Non-tribal class divisions in this region are mostly centered on traditional occupations like blacksmiths or craftspeople, rather than strict social stratifications. Although there is a split between the southern and northern regions of the province, Punjab maintains the lowest poverty levels.
Punjab’s population is reported to be 110,012,442, and as per the census of 2017, the Muslim population is 107,559,164 Muslims. Christians make the 2nd largest minority group, accounting for 2,068,233 people, or 1.88 percent of the total population. Hindus account for approximately 220,024 people or 0.2 percent of the population. Sikhs, Bahá’is, and Parsis are among other minorities.
Government of Punjab
The government is a provincial govt in Pakistan’s federal structure, centered in Lahore, the province’s capital. The CM of Punjab is elected by the Punjab Provincial Assembly to run the provincial government of Punjab, Pakistan. Sardar Usman Buzdar is the current CM. He was selected as a result of the elections held on 25th July 2018.
The Punjab Provincial Assembly is a unicameral legislature comprising elected legislators from the Punjab, which is headquartered in Lahore, Pakistan. The Punjab government has 48 departments. A Provincial Minister & the Provincial Secretary lead each Department. All Ministers respond to the Chief Minister, who also serves as the Chief Executive.
All Secretaries are reporting to Punjab’s Chief Secretary, who is a Civil Servan of BPS-22. In turn, the Chief Secretary reports to the CM. Aside from these departments, there are a number of Attached Departments and Autonomous Bodies that directly report to the Chief Secretary or Secretaries.
Economy of Punjab Pakistan
The region has Pakistan’s largest economy, adding the most to the country’s GDP. Since 1972, its economy has almost quadrupled. It contributed 54.7 percent to Pakistan’s GDP in 2000 & 59 percent in 2010. It is extremely potent in Pakistan’s service and agricultural sectors. Its contribution ranges from 52.1 percent to 64.5 percent in the service sector & 56.1 percent to 61.5 percent in agriculture.
It also contributes significantly to manpower because it has the highest pool of experts and extremely competent labor in Pakistan. Despite the absence of a coastline, this province is Pakistan’s most industrialized province, its industries manufacture textiles, heavy machinery, sports goods, electrical appliances, vehicles, surgical instruments, auto parts, sugar mills, metals, aircraft, agricultural machinery, cement, bicycles, rickshaws, and floor coverings.
In 2003, the region produced 90 percent of Pakistan’s paper & paperboard, 71 percent of fertilizers, 69 percent of sugar, and 40 percent of cement.
Several historical sites are found in the province, including the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, the Badshahi Mosque, the ruins of Harrapa, and the Rohtas Fort. The Jahangir’s Tomb and Anarkali Market are notable sites in Lahore.
The province is home to several notable Sikh shrines, including the place of birth of the 1st Guru, Guru Nanak. The Khewra Salt Mine is a major tourist attraction. Because the mine is so vast and the complicated interconnecting corridors are like a puzzle, tours are led by guides.
Inside this mine, there is a modest mosque made of salt stone. In 2007, a clinical unit with twenty beds was constructed to treat asthma & other respiratory illnesses with salt therapy.
Dance & Music
Classical music styles, like the classical music of Pakistan, are an essential component of Punjab’s cultural wealth. Muslim singers have given a considerable number of ragas to the classical music repository. The harmonium and tabla are the most commonly used instruments.
Baba Farid, Sultan Bahu, Shah Hussain, Bulleh Shah, Mian Muhammad Baksh, and Waris Shah are well-known Punjabi poets. Punjabi folk music & dances express a variety of moods, including the rainy, harvesting, and planting seasons.
The joy of life is portrayed by Luddi, Sammi, and Bhangra. Love melodies of Mirza Sahiban, Heer Ranjha, Saiful Mulk, and Sohni Mahenwal, are sung in a variety of ways.