Lahore is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is the second largest and most populous city in Pakistan, after Karachi, and the 32nd most populous urban city in the world. The city is located in the north east part of Punjab province, near the border with India and is one of Pakistan’s wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP) as of 2014.Lahore is the historic cultural centre of the Punjab region and is the largest Punjabi city in the world. The city has a long history, and was once under the rule of the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Lodis, Marathas and the Delhi Sultanate. Lahore is also home to Pakistan’s film industry, Lollywood, and is a major centre of Qawwali music. The city is also much of Pakistan’s tourist industry,with major attractions including the old Walled City, and the Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques. Lahore is also home to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens.
|Type:||Capital city of Punjab|
|Local Language Name:||Urdu,English,Punjabi|
|Elevation:||217 m (712 ft)|
|Government Type:||Government Of Punjab|
|Mayor:||Colonel (r) Mubashir Javed|
|Deputy Mayor:||9 zonal Mayors|
|Total Area:||1,772 km2 (684 sq mi)|
|Time zone:||PKT (UTC+5)|
|Vehicle registration:||Three letters beginning with F and random four numbers|
Lahore reached a peak of architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, whose buildings and gardens survived the hazards of time. Lahore’s reputation for beauty fascinated the English poet John Milton, who wrote “Agra and Lahore, the Seat of Great Mughal” in 1670.From 1524 to 1752, Lahore was part of the Mughal Empire. Lahore touched the zenith of its glory during the Mughal rule from 1524 to 1752. The Mughals, who were famous as builders, gave Lahore some of its finest architectural monuments, many of which are extant today.From 1524 to 1752, Lahore was part of the Mughal Empire. Lahore grew under emperor Babur; from 1584 to 1598, under the emperors Akbar the Great and Jahangir, the city served as the empire’s capital. Lahore reached the peak of its architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, many of whose buildings and gardens have survived the ravages of time. Lahore’s reputation for beauty fascinated the English poet John Milton, who wrote “Agra and Lahore, the Seat of the Great Mughal” in 1670. During this time, the massive Lahore Fort was built. A few buildings within the fort were added by Akbar’s son, Mughal emperor Jahangir, who is buried in the city. Jahangir’s son, Shahjahan Burki, was born in Lahore. He, like his father, extended the Lahore Fort and built many other structures in the city, including the Shalimar Gardens. The last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, built the city’s most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate next to the Lahore Fort.During the 17th century, as Mughal power dwindled, Lahore was often invaded, and government authority was lacking. The great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah said of the situation, “khada peeta wahy da, baqi Ahmad Shahy da we have nothing with us except what we eat and wear, all other things are for Ahmad Shah”. Ahmad Shah Durrani captured remnants of the Mughal Empire and had consolidated control over the Punjab and Kashmir regions by 1761.
At the commencement of British rule, Lahore was estimated to have a population of 120,000. Tomb of Anarkali, which the British had initially converted to clerical offices before re-purposing it as an Anglican church in 1851. The Dai Anga Mosque was converted into railway administration offices during this time as well, while the tomb of Nawab Bahadur Khan was converted into a storehouse, and tomb of Mir Mannu was converted into a wine shop.The British built the Lahore Railway Station just outside the Walled City shortly after the Mutiny of 1857, and so built the station in the style of a medieval castle to ward of any potential future uprisings, with thick walls, turrets, and holes to direct gun and cannon fire for defence of the structure.Lahore’s most prominent government institutions and commercial enterprises came to be concentrated in Civil Station in a half-mile wide area flanking The Mall, where unlike in Lahore’s military zone, the British and locals were allowed to mix. The Mall continues to serve as the epicentre of Lahore’s civil administration, as well as one of its most fashionable commercial areas.The British built several notable structures near The Mall, including the neoclassical Montgomery Hall, which today serves as the Quaid-e-Azam Library. Lawrence Gardens were also laid near Civil Station, and were paid for by donations solicited from both Lahore’s European community, as well as from wealth locals. The gardens featured over 600 species of plants, and were tended to by a horticulturist sent from London’s Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The British also laid the spacious Lahore Cantonment to the southeast of the Walled City at the former village of Mian Mir, where unlike around The Mall, laws existed against the mixing of different races.Prior to annexation by the British, Lahore’s environs consisted mostly of the Walled City surrounded by plains interrupted by settlements to the south and east such as Mozang and Qila Gujar Singh, which have since been engulfed by Lahore. The plains between the settlements also contained the remains of Mughal gardens, tombs, and Sikh-era military structures.The British viewed Lahore’s Walled City as a bed of potential social discontent and disease epidemics, and so largely left the inner city alone, while focusing development efforts in Lahore’s suburban areas, and Punjab’s fertile countryside. The British instead laid out their capital city in an area south of the Walled City that would be come to known as “Civil Station.Under early British rule, formerly prominent Mughal-era monuments that were scattered throughout Civil Station were also re-purposed, and sometimes desecrated – including the
Upon the i ndependence of Pakistan, Lahore was made capital of the Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan. Almost immediately, large scale riots broke out among Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus, causing many deaths as well as damage to historic monuments including the Lahore Fort, Badshahi mosque and colonial buildings.After independence and its deep impact, Lahore as so many times before, once again gained its significance as an economic and cultural powerhouse of the region, through government reforms. The second Islamic Summit Conference was held in the city in 1974. With United Nations assistance, the government was able to rebuild Lahore, and most scars of the communal violence of independence were erased. Less than 20 years later, however, Lahore once again became a battleground in the War of 1965. The battlefield and trenches can still be observed today close to the Wagah border area. In 1996, the International Cricket Council Cricket World Cup final match was held at the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore.The Walled City of Lahore known locally as the “Un-droone Shehr” (Inner City) is the oldest and most historic part of Lahore. The Punjab government embarked on a major project in 2009 to restore the Royal Trail (Shahi Guzar Gah) from Akbari Gate to the Lahore Fort with the help of the World Bank under the Sustainable Development of the Walled City of Lahore (SDWCL) project. The project aims at the Walled City development, at exploring and highlighting economic potential of the Walled City as a cultural heritage, exploring and highlighting the benefits of the SWDCL project for the residents, and at soliciting suggestions regarding maintenance of development and conservation of the Walled City.
Lahore has a semi-arid climate (Kppen climate classification BSh). The hottest month is June, when average highs routinely exceed 40 C (104.0 F). The monsoon season starts in late June, and the wettest month is July,with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudbursts. The coolest month is January with dense fog.The city’s record high temperature was 48.3 C (118.9 F), recorded on 30 May 1944. 48 C (118 F) was recorded on 10 June 2007. At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of 55 C (131 F). The record low is 1 C (30 F), recorded on 13 January 1967.The highest rainfall in a 24-hour period is 221 millimetres (8.7 in), recorded on 13 August 2008. On 26 February 2011, Lahore received heavy rain and hail measuring 4.5 mm (0.18 in), which carpeted roads and sidewalks with measurable hail for the first time in the city’s recorded history.
Lahore is home to numerous monuments from the Mughal Dynasty, Sikh Empire, and British Raj. Pakistan’s Department of Archaeology has excavated many architectural remains of the buildings that were built during the rule of Rama of Ayodhya. The architectural style of the Walled City of Lahore has a strong influence of the Mughal style, and includes Mughal monuments such as the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, the mausolea of Jehangir and Nur Jahan. Other examples of Mughal architecture include: Jahangir Quadrangle, Maktab Khana, Khilwat Khana, Picture Wall, Kala Burj and Hathi Paer. As capital of British Punjab, the area south of the Walled City contains many British colonial municipal structures built in the Indo-Saracenic style, such as the General Post Office, and Lahore Museum. The predominant architectural style is a mixture of Victorian and Islamic architecture, and is often referred to as Indo-Gothic. An interesting point about Lahore’s architecture is that unlike the emphasis on functional architecture in the west, much of Lahore’s architecture has always been about making a statement as much as anything else.
As of 2008, the city’s gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at $40 billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent. This is at par with Pakistan’s economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore (having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi’s ($78 billion in 2008). The contribution of Lahore to the national economy is supposed to be around 13.2%.As a whole Punjab has $115 billion economy making it first and to date only Pakistani Subdivision of economy more than $100 billion at the rank 144. Lahore’s GDP is projected to be 102 billion$ by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum, as compared to Karachi’s 5.5%.A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries. Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services.The city is Pakistan’s largest software & hardware producing centre, and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry.The city has always been a centre for publications where 80% of Pakistan’s books are published, and it remains the foremost centre of literary, educational and cultural activity in Pakistan.
Lahore Rapid Mass Transit System (LRMTS) was first proposed in 1991. Funding was not secured, and in 2012 it was abandoned by the Punjab Government in favour of the more costï effective Lahore Metro Bus System which opened in February 2013. However, in May 2014 the Punjab Government decided to restart development on the Lahore Metro as a $1.6 billion project with Chinese assistance. The Orange Line, which will be 27.1-kilometre (16.8 mi) long, (25.4 kilometres (15.8 mi) of which will be elevated),will be the first line of the project and is under construction.
Allama Iqbal International Airport, (IATA: LHE, ICAO: OPLA) is the second largest civil airport inPakistan, serving Lahore, the capital of Punjab province as well a large portion of the travellers from the Punjab province. Originally known as Lahore International Airport, it was renamed after AllamaIqbal, one of the pioneers that led to the creation of Pakistan.The airport currently has three terminals: the AllamaIqbal terminal, the Hajj terminal and a cargo terminal. The airport is located about 15 km from the centre of the city. The government built a new city airport in 2003. It was named Allama Iqbal International Airport after the national poet-philosopher of Pakistan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, and is served by international airlines as well as the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines.Over the course of the next twenty five years the demand for air travel rose. It meant that the government had to build a new airport to meet the growing needs for of the region. In March 2003, a new terminal was inaugurated by General Pervez Musharraf originally commissioned by then Prime Minister Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif. The airport was named Allama Iqbal International Airport and became the second largest airport in Pakistan after Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. All flights were switched to the new airport and the old airport was passed onto the military. However, the government later reclaimed the airport from the military and developed it into a Hajj terminal.
In 2008, the national flag carrier of the UAE, Etihad Airways, opened a dedicated aircraft line maintenance facility in Lahore. The facility is equipped with the latest technology and equipment, which will be used for all day-to-day technical line maintenance on Etihad aircraft including hydraulic structural and instrument checks.
Lahore is known as Pakistan’s educational capital, with more colleges and universities than any other city in Pakistan. Lahore is Pakistan’s largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology, telecommunication, biotechnology and microelectronics, nanotechnology and the only future hyper high tech centre of Pakistan . Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. The current literacy rate of Lahore is 74%. Lahore hosts some of Pakistan’s oldest educational institutes.
Government College University, Lahore, established in 1864, Forman Christian College, a chartered university, established in 1864, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, established in 1882, Dayal Singh College, established 1910,Islamia College, established in 1892, National College of Arts, established in 1875, University of the Punjab, established in 1882, King Edward Medical University, De’Montmorency College of Dentistry.
Lahore has successfully hosted many international sports events including the finals of the 1990 Men’s Hockey World Cup and the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The headquarters of all major sports governing bodies are located here in Lahore including Cricket, Hockey, Rugby, Football etc. and also has the head office of Pakistan Olympic Association.Lahore is home to several golf courses. The Lahore Gymkhana Golf Course, the Lahore Garrison Golf and Country Club, the Royal Palm Golf Club and newly built DHA Golf Club are well maintained Golf Courses in Lahore. In nearby Raiwind Road, a 9 holes course, Lake City, opened in 2011. The newly opened Oasis Golf and Aqua Resort is another addition to the city. It is a state-of-the-art facility featuring golf, water parks, and leisure activities such as horse riding, archery and more.The Lahore Marathon is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on 30 January 2005, and again on 29 January 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on 14 January 2007 not in citation given] Plans exist to build Pakistan’s first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the Ravi River.
Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and other traditions. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are celebrated. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses during public holidays; roads and businesses may be lit for days. The mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri, also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh or Data Sahib, is located in Lahore, and an annual urs is held every year as a big festival. Basant is a Punjabi festival marking the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centred in Lahore, and people from all over the country and from abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharp kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.
Lahore remains a major tourist destination in Pakistan. Particularly the Walled City of Lahore which was renovated in 2014 is popular due to presence of UNESCO World Heritage Site’s. Wazir Khan Mosque which is known for its extensive faience tile work was constructed in 1635.Among the most popular sights are the Lahore Fort, located to adjacent to the Walled City, is home to Sheesh Mahal, Alamgiri Gate, Naulakha pavilion, and Moti Masjid. The fort along with the adjoining Shalimar Gardens has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981.The city is home to several ancient religious sites including prominet Hindu temples, the Krishna Temple and Valmiki Mandir Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, also located near the Walled City, houses the funerary urns of the Sikhruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The most prominent religious building is the Badshahi Mosque, constructed in 1673, it was the largest mosque in the world upon construction. Another popular sight is the