The Sutlej is among the three eastern rivers that were divided between India and Pakistan according to the Indus Water Treaty (IWT) in 1960. Under the IWT, all the waters of the eastern tributaries of the Indus river originating in India, i.e. the Sutlej, Beas and Ravi rivers taken together, were made available for the unrestricted use of India.For almost forty years after the IWT came into implementation, the irrigation canals in the south Punjab were fed by the waters of the river Chanab through Mailsi Siphon. Many new tracts have been brought under cultivation but the water supplies remain static. The small farmers got their water share reduced significantly amidst the rapidly shrinking water table.
|Location:||Between Pakistan and India|
|Local Language Name:||درياۓ ستلُج|
|Coordinates :||29°23′23″N 71°3′42″E|
|Countries:||Pakistan and India|
|Right -:||Spiti, Beas|
|Elevation:||4,575 m (15,010 ft)|
|Location:||Bahawalpur district, Punjab, Pakistan|
|Elevation:||0 m (0 ft)|
|Mouth:||Confluence with Chenab to form the Panjnad River|
|Length:||1,500 km (932 mi) approx|
|Basin:||395,000 km2 (152,510 sq mi) approx|
|Discharge average:||500 m3/s (17,657 cu ft/s)|
Sutlej River is one of those rivers, which are located in the province of Punjab. Among these five popular rivers of Punjab, Sutlej is considered as the largest. The river flows in both India and Pakistan and also makes its way through Punjab’s crossroad region. Sutlej River originates from Himalayan’s North Slope in Tibet. It joins River Chenab at Bahawalpur and River Beas before entering the border between India and Pakistan. After that these three rivers join Panjnad and then continue their journey towards Arabian Sea. Sutlej totally discharges its water through Indus River to the end of port Qasim which is situated in Karachi, Sindh.
Sutlej river flows through
Before entering Pakistan, the river flows through places like Himachal Pradesh, Sarhan, Nako, and Kalpa. The river helps the people of Punjab a lot in serving as the source of water and irrigates most of the land. The other name of Sutlej River is ‘Red River. The water of this river was distributed to India and Pakistan according to Indus Basin Treaty. Various dams had been built on this river to make more and more energy. In history the Vedic Period is world known and the river also belongs to that era in which it was called as Sutudri.
On Sutlej’s bank various beautiful valleys like Machhiwara, Koom Kalan, and Beholpur are found. The extensive use of Sutlej’s water is made in the villages near it. At summertime, the beauty of ice melting and Sutlej’s fascinating flowing water is worth seeing. Tourists visit this place mostly in summertime because it gives a convincing experience to tourists of the world. The rewarded steps of nature make their visit more adventurous with breathtaking scenes and beautiful greenery. Sutlej River also gives a place to wild life and various birds migrate to this river side at a particular time of migration.
Sutlej River, Ancient Greek Zaradros, Sanskrit Shutudri or Shatadru, longest of the five tributaries of the Indus River that give the Punjab (meaning “Five Rivers”) its name. It rises on the north slope of the Himalayas in Lake La’nga in southwestern Tibet, at an elevation above 15,000 feet (4,600 metres). Flowing northwestward and then west-southwestward through Himalayan gorges.Its water was a source of dispute between India and Pakistan until 1960, when the countries concluded the Indus Waters Treaty, which allocated the water of the Sutlej to India in exchange for exclusive Pakistani rights to the Indus and its western tributaries. Major irrigation works include the Bhakra-Nangal Project, the Sirhind Canal, and the Sutlej Valley Project, the latter in both India and Pakistan.
The hydrology of the Sutlej is controlled by spring and summer snowmelt in the Himalayas and by the South Asian monsoon. The onset of the summer monsoon brings heavy rains that often produce extensive flooding downstream. The maximum recorded flood discharge occurred in 1955, when the river flowed at nearly 600,000 cubic feet (17,000 cubic metres) per second. The winter flow is substantially lower, since there is little precipitation or meltwater from the Himalayan glaciers. The 900-mile- (1,400-km-) long Sutlej is used extensively for irrigation.
Amazing Facts About The Sutlej River
- River Sutlej originates at an altitude of 15,000 feet and flows for 1,550 kms.
- In Tibet, it is called the Red River
- Sutlej is a very fast flowing river and has been tapped for power generation at many places in HP.
- When in Punjab, it merges with Beas and further into Chenab
- Sutlej played a major role in the ancient civilizations located in Tibet
- The river played a major role for the timber trade of Hamirpur and Bilaspur
- Tibetans believe that the river actually originates from Mansarovar Lake
- According to a water treaty signed in 1960, water from the Sutlej was given to India and water of the Indus was allotted to Pakistan
- Sutlej has many big tributaries – most important ones are Baspa, Nogli Khad, Soan and Spiti
- When in Himachal, Sutlej covers a massive area of 6,553 sq km
- So mighty is this river that it cuts through the toughest Himalayan ranges of Zanskar, Great Himalayas and Dhauladhars
- On the eastern side of Sutlej, you will find slender valleys and on the western side you will find wide and open spaces
- All along te bank of this river, there is rich cultivation of fruits such as grapes, apples and apricots
- Till date, Sutlej valley is inhabited by nomads who are believed to be the descendants of Zhangzhung, primarily herders of yak
- Some historians believe that before 1700 BC,Sutlej was in fact a tributary of the now vanished Saraswati River
The source of the Sutlej is west of Lake Rakshastal in Tibet, as springs in an ephemeral stream channel descending from this lake. Rakshastal in turn is ephemerally connected by Ganga Chhu to sacred Lake Manasarovar about 4 KM further east. The nascent river flows at first west-northwest for about 260 kilometres (160 mi) under the Tibetan name Langqên Zangbo (Elephant River or Elephant Spring) to the Shipki La pass, entering India in Himachal Pradesh state. It then turns slightly, heading west-southwest for about 360 kilometres (220 mi) to meet the Beas River near Makhu, Firozpur district, Punjab state. North western part of Panchkula district in Haryana state is located in the Sutlej river basin.Thus Haryana is also a riparian state of Indus river basin.About 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of Uch Sharif, the Sutlej unites with the Chenab River, forming the Panjnad River, which finally flows into the Indus river about 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of the city of Bahawalpur. The area to the southeast on the Pakistani side of the Indian border is called the Cholistan Desert and, on the Indian side, the Thar Desert.
The Sutlej, along with all of the Punjab rivers, is thought to have drained east into the Ganges prior to 5 mya.There is substantial geologic evidence to indicate that prior to 1700 BC, and perhaps much earlier, the Sutlej was an important tributary of the Ghaggar-Hakra River (thought to be the legendary Sarasvati River) rather than the Indus, with various authors putting the redirection from 2500 to 2000 BC, from 5000 to 3000 BC or before 8000 BC. Geologists believe that tectonic activity created elevation changes which redirected the flow of Sutlej from the southeast to the southwest If the diversion of the river occurred recently (about 4000 years ago), it may have been responsible for the Ghaggar-Hakra (Saraswati) drying up, causing desertification of Cholistan and the eastern part of the modern state of Sindh, and the abandonment of Harappan settlements along the Ghaggar. However, the Sutlej may have already been captured by the Indus thousands of years earlier.