Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army

The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of  Pakistan  in 1947. It is currently headed by  General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani . The Pakistan Army is a volunteer professional fighting force. [1] Since independence, the Army has been – involved It has an active force of 612,000 personnel.The Pakistani constitution contains a provision forconscription, but it has never been imposed.Since independence, the Army has been involved in four wars with neighbouring India and several border skirmishes with Afghanistan. It maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and the Coalition in the first Gulf War.[2] Brigade strength presences in some of – the Arab Other major operations undertaken by the Army include Operation Black Thunderstorm and Operation Rah-e-Nijat. Apart from conflicts, the Army has been an active participant in UN missions and played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu,Somalia in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent.[3] history facts – .com

Abbreviation:A follower of none but God
Motto:إِيمَان, تقوى, في سبيل الله
Founded:14 August 1947
Website:Official Website
Agency overview
Formed:14 August 1947
Headquarters:General Headquarters Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Employees:620,000 active troops & 500,000 reserves
Uniform Colour:Green and White
Jurisdictional Structure
Anniversaries:Defence Day: September 6
Engagements:1947 Indo-Pakistan War , 1965 Indo-Pakistan War , 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War , 1971 Indo-Pakistan War , Grand Mosque Seizure Soviet-Afghan War Siachen conflict Kargil War Global War , on Terror Siege of Lal Masjid War , in North-West Pakistan Balochistan conflict
Chief of Army Staff :General Qamar Javed Bajwa
Operational Structure
Overviewed By:Commanders
Attack:Bell AH-1 Cobra
Helicopter:Bell 412, Bell 407, Bell 206, Bell UH-1 Huey
Transport:Mil Mi-8/17, Arospatiale Alouette III, Bell 412
Headquarters:General Headquarters Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Executive:General Qamar Javed Bajwa
Bases:Karachi, Mangla, Lahore , Peshawar , Quetta , Rawalpindi , Bahawalpur
Main Battle Tanks:Al-Khalid , Upgraded Tanks

Pakistan Army G RaheelPakistan Army on PetrolingPakistan Army Pakistan Army Pakistan Army


Pakistan Army Best

1947 – 1958

Pakistan Army in War

The Pakistan Army was created on 30 June 1947 with the division of the British Indian Army. [4] The Pakistan Army was created on – 30 June 1947 The soon to be created Dominion of  Pakistan  received six armored, eight artillery and eight infantry regiments compared to the 12 armored, forty artillery and twenty one infantry regiments that went to India. [5] The South East Asian Treaty –   Organization Fearing that India would take over the state of Kashmir, irregulars, scouts and tribal groups entered Kashmir to oppose the Maharaja of Kashmir and Kashmiri Hindus and Sikhs in 1947, even though the Maharaja chose to join the Union of India. This led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Regular army units joined the invasion later on but were stopped after the refusal of the army chief of staff, British officer General Sir Frank Messervy, to obey Pakistani leader Jinnah’s orders to move the army into Kashmir. [6] This aid greatly expanded the Army – Pakistan A ceasefire followed on U.N. intervention with Pakistan occupying the northwestern part ofKashmir and India occupying the rest. Later, during the 1950s, the  Pakistan  Army received large amounts of economic and military aid from the United States andGreat Britain after signing two mutual defense treaties, the Baghdad Pact, which led to the formation of the Central Treaty Organization, and the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954. [7] Info-Thread on the Pakistan Army – Imformation This aid greatly expanded the Army from its modest beginnings. [8] 1947 – 1958  pakistan army –

1958 – 1969

Pakistan Army

Pakistan Army took over from poiliticians for the first time when General Ayub Khan came to power through a bloodless coup in 1958. [9] Pakistan Army took over from –   poiliticians He formed Convention Muslim League which includes  Pakistan  first elected Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto. [10] General Ayub Khan came to power –   through Tensions with India continued in the 1960s and a brief border skirmish was fought near the Rann of Kutch area during April 1965. The Pakistan Army initiated Operation Gibraltar, an attempt to remove Indian forces from the disputed territory of Indian-occupied Kashmir. The Indian Army counter-attacked by trying to invade undisputed Pakistani territory and the PA’s goals changed from gaining control of Indian-occupied Kashmir to defending Pakistani territory from invading Indian forces. Eventually a ceasefire agreement was reached. The war ended in the Tashkent Declaration and is widely regarded by neutral sources to have been a stalemate. [11] The Pakistan Army initiated Operation – Gibraltar

1971 – 1977

A Pakistan International Airlines flight was sent to fetch Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from New York, who at that time was presenting Pakistan’s case before the United Nations Security Council on the East  Pakistan  Crises. [12] A Pakistan International Airlines flight – Pakistan Bhutto returned home on 18 December 1971. On 20 December, he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, one as President and the other as Chief Martial Law Administrator. [13] First civilian Chief Martial Law – Administrator Thus he was the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of the Pakistan. [14] About Imformation Pak Army – 1971 – 1977

1999 – 2008

After the Kargil Conflict ended with the unconditional withdrawal of the Pakistani forces from the Indian controlled peaks, the Pakistan Army overthrew a democratically elected government once more, resulting in additional sanctions being applied against Pakistan, leading to General Pervez Musharraf coming to power in a bloodless coup. However, this time Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif sacked Musharraf when he was on his way to  Pakistan  from Colombo. He dismissed him as Chief of Army Staff and appointed General Ziauddin Butt to that position instead, when Musharraf’s plane was in the air. That was not enough, the plane was not allowed to land at the airport in  Karachi  and barricades were erected on the runway. The corps commanders acted swiftly across Pakistan, particularly in  Karachi  and Islamabad. Brigadiar Muzaffar Usmani took control of the airport in  Karachi  and arrested the then Inspector General of Sindh Police, Rana Maqbool Ahmed. Musharraf stepped down as President in August 2008. On 30 July 2009, the Supreme Court of Pakistan ruled that Musharraf’s imposition of emergency rule was unconstitutional.[15] pakistan –


Pakistan Army Base CAMP


Pakistan Army

Major Army bases are located at:

 1  Karachi 
 2 Mangla
 3  Lahore 
 4  Multan 
 5  Peshawar 
 6  Quetta 
 7  Rawalpindi 
 8 Bahawalpur 


Pakistan Army Training Camp

Training is the overall responsibility of the Inspector General, Training and Evaluation (IG T&E) in GHQ. The army relies largely on the efficient regimental system whereby each infantry regiment has its own training center, as have other arms and services. Initial training of officers (now including females in other than the Medical Corps) is conducted mainly at the  Pakistan  Military Academy at Kakul, Abbotabad. [16] Training is overall responsibility – Inspector General Standards are adequate, although the course is too short, and emphasis has to be placed on instruction in the English language.Regimental and special-to-arms and -services training is of a high standard but there is much learning by rote, which tends to reduce initiative. [17] The army relies largely on the –   efficient Instruction at army schools (such as the School of Infantry and Tactics at  Quetta ) is impressive and courses are conducted efficiently. [18] Advanced technical training and –   graduate This also applies to the Command and Staff College. Directing staff are high quality and the syallabus is sound. However, the culture of chappa- an anxiety to conform, resulting in emphasis on obtaining “correct” solutions from former students – produces careful, but imitative papers. Despite this, topic discussion is energetic, and the product is generally good.Advanced courses for officers are conducted at National Defence University in  Islamabad , of which the two main courses (August to June) are the National Defence Course (brigadiers and equivalent) and the Armed Forces War Course (lieutenant colonels and equivalent). Instruction is world standard.[19] Officers are conducted –   University in Islamabad

The Army Chiefs

 # Names Duration
 1General Sir Frank Walter Messervy August 1947 – Feburary 1948
 2General Douglas David Gracey February 1948 – April 1951
 3Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan 17 January 1951 – 26 October 1958
 4General Muhammad Musa 27 October 1958 – 17 September1966
 5General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan 18 September 1966 – 20 December 1971
 6General Gul Hassan 20 December 1971- 21 Jan 1972
 7General Tikka Khan 3 March 1972 – 1 March 1976
 8General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq 1 March 1976 – 17 August 1988
 9General Mirza Aslam Beg 17 August 1988 – 16 August 1991
 10General Asif Nawaz Janjua 16 August 1991 – 8 January 1993
 11General Abdul Waheed 12 January 1993 – 12 January 1996
 12General Jehangir Karamat 12 January 1996 – 7 October 1998
 13 General Pervez Musharraf  7 October 1998 – 29 November 2007
 14 General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani  7 October 1998 – 29 November 2007
 15 General Raheel Sharif  29 November 2013 – 29 November 2016
 16 General Qamar javed Bajwa  29 November 2016 – Todate

Army Procurement

Main Battle Tanks


Pakistan Army AL Khalid Tank

Pakistan’s efforts to develop its own indigenous tank, the Al-Khalid, suffered initially from difficulties over the supply of power/transmission packs from a European source, As a result of co-operation with Ukraine over the T-80 Main Battle Tank (MBT), the Ukranian Malyshev Plant sold engine and gearbox units for the Al-Khalid to  Pakistan  in September 2000, and was contracted to provide a total of 315 packs. In November 2000  Pakistan  announced that the Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) facility would build a pre-production batch of Al-Khalids in co-operation with the China North Industries Corporation (NORINCO). The first 15 Al-Khalids appeared in July 2001. The production rate in 2004 was estimated by HIT to be 45-60 annually, dependent on budget allocation, and some 220 were in service as of May 2008. Development continues, with modifications in the fire control system and linkage.[20] Al-Khalid, suffered initially from – difficulties [21] China North Industries Corporation – (NORINCO)

Upgraded Tanks

Pakistan Army Tankers

Though superseded by the Al-Khalid as the  Pakistan  Army’s first line MBT, the Phase III Al-Zarrar version of the Type 59 has been upgraded and is adequate for training and emergency combat use. [22] Al-Zarrar version of the Type 59 has – been upgraded The program is centered on fitting a 125mm smoothbore main gun, an upgraded computerised fire control system and ATCOP TR3 laser range-finder, together with DNS 3 image intensifier. Both Thales and Sagem night vision equipment is under trial. Improved armour protection has also been fitted in the shape of an external anti-mine plate on the chassis and Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA). Unlike the Al-Khalid MBT, the 125mm main gun is not fitted with an auto-loader, so the Al-Zarrar has a fourth crew member for this purpose. The army has ordered 400 upgraded tanks of the holding od some 1,000, with the remainder being phased out as the Khalids enter service. [23] The army has ordered 400 –   upgraded tanks The first batch of 80 was handed over in February 2004. [24] China in  other aspects of military – development it is unlikely Pakistan will seek to purchase MBTs from other sources in the forseeable future, and that it will concentrate on continuing close cooperation with China in this as in other aspects of military development.

Armoured Personnel Carriers

HIT has developed a number of M113A1 variants for the  Pakistan  Army. These include:

  1. The Maaz is a modified M113A1 fitted with a Baktar Shikan anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW). The shape of the M113A1 has been modified, extending its nose slightly and adding additional diesel fuel tanks on the back.
  2. Mouz – Modified M 113 fitted with RBS 70.
  3. Talha – Modified M 113 APC.
  4. Saad – Modified M 113 APC.
  5. Al-Hamza – Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) (25mm cannon).
  6. Al-Qaswa – logistics vehicle.
  7. Sakb – Command post vehicle.
  8. Al-Hadeed – Recovery vehicle (modified Talha)

Artillery Anti Tank

The country is developing its own MLRS system, the Azar (probably in conjuction with China), and it appears to be successful. The army urgently requires more self-propelled medium and heavy artillery pieces, and ageement with the US has been reached for supply of 115 M109A5 155mm SP guns at an estimated cost of US$ 56 million(deliveries underway). [25] country is developing its own – MLRS system Its indigeneous anti-tank missile, the Baktar Shikan is in production but cannot be said to be a technological advance on existing systems. it is however cheap and easy to handle. Pakistan  is seeking to procure self-propelled mortar systems to equip mechanized infantry battalions with indigeneous firepower to complement the recent improvement in Pakistan’s self-propelled artillery formations. [26] Artillery / Anti Tank IMformation – Pakistan This capability is seen as a requirement given the planned increase in the number of fully mechanized formations, but both the Artillery Directorate and Strike Corps are more concerned with the effectiveness of self-propelled howitzers and hence mortar procurement is likely to take second place and be based around converted M 113s or similar systems.[27] Pakistan is seeking to procure –   self-propelled

Recipients of Nishan-e-Haider

The Nishan-e-Haider  (Sign of the Lion), is the highest military award given by Pakistan after the Hilal-i-Jur’at (Crescent of Courage). Nishan-e-Haider recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients.[28] Recipients of Nishan-e-Haider – Pak Army

 Name UnitConflict Date Place of Death 
 Captain Muhammad Sarwar2nd Battalion of thePunjab Regiment War of 1947 July 27, 1948 Kashmir
 Major Tufail Mohammad 16th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment 1958 Border clash with India August 7, 1958Lakshmipur District
 Major Aziz Bhatti 17th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment War of 1965 September 10, 1965 Lahore District
 Major Mohammad Akram 4th Battalion of theFrontier Force Regiment War of 1971 1971East Pakistan
 Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed No. 2 Squadron Minhas War of 1971 August 20, 1971  Thatta, Sindh,West Pakistan
 Major Shabbir Sharif 6th Battalion of the Frontier Force RegimentWar of 1971 December 6, 1971 Kargil, Indian Administered Kashmir
 Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz 15th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment War of 1971 December 8, 1971 Wagah-Attari
Sawar Muhammad Hussain 20th Lancers, Armoured Corps War of 1971 December 10, 1971 Zafarwal-Shakargarh
 Captain Karnal Sher Khan 12th Battalion of theNorthern Light Infantry Kargil War July 5, 1999Kargil, Indian Administered Kashmir
Havaldar Lalak Jan 12th Battalion of the Northern Light Infantry Kargil War July 7, 1999 Kargil, Indian Administered Kashmir

Main Military Schools Training Centres and Depots

School/Centre/Depot, Location

  • Baloch Regimental Centre,  Abbotabad 
    Frontier Force Regimental Centre
    HQ, School of Mountain Warfare (mobile detachments, elements in Skardu)
    Pakistan Military Academy
  • Azad Kashmir Regimental Centre, Attock
    Special Service Group (SSG) (also at Cherat and the Parachute School,  Peshawar )
  • Corps of Military Police Centre,  Dera Ismail Khan 
  • Punjab  Regimental Centre,  Mardan 
  • Schools of Army Education, Logistics and Intelligence  Murree 
  • Schools and Centres of Armour, Artillery, Service Corps,  Nowshera 
  • Parachute School (SSG)  Peshawar 
  • Sindh Regimental Centre, Petaro
  • Command and Staff College  Quetta 
    School of Infantry and Tactics
  • Military College of Engineering Risalpur

Military Operations

In recent years the army has undertaken many joint operations that include Operation Al-Mizan, Operation Rah-e-Haq, Operation Sher-e-Dil, Operation Zalzala, Operation Sirat-e-Mustaqeem, Operation Rah-e-Raast, Operation Rah-e-Nijaat, Operation Koh-e-Sufaid, Operation  Zarb-e-Azb.[29] Army has undertaken many joint –   operations 

Operation Al-Mizan 2002-2006

This was the first major operation of  Pakistan  Army against the militant groups working against Pakistan. At that time the Army Chief was  General Pervez Musharraf ,  who deployed forces in FATA of around 70,000-80,000 men. The loss security personnel was around 1200-1500 soldiers as it was the first major operation inside the country and the army faced a huge loss due to lack of information about the methodology of the enemy, their hideouts and barely know-how of the terrain. Full convoys were targeted by the Taliban militants in the initial stages causing many casualties. Besides the basic infantry, [30] Operation Al-Mizan (2002-2006) – by pakistan  Special Force units of the Pakistan Army, the elite SSG (Special Service Group) were also directly engaged in fighting. This operation comprised of many small operations too such as Operation Kalosha II, which took place in South Waziristan. Lack of public and national support at that time created hurdles in the smooth progress of the operation.[31] Pakistan Army against the militant – groups

Operation Rah-Haq November 2007

In May 2004 clashes erupted between  Pakistan  Troops and Al- Qaeda and the other militants joined by local rebels and pro-Taliban forces. [32] Operation Rah-Haq (November 2007) – Militry The offensive was poorly coordinated and the  Pakistan  Army suffered heavy casualties. After a two-year conflict (2004-2006) The Pakistan Military negotiated a ceasefire with the tribesmen from the region where they pledged to hunt down Al-Qaeda , stop Talibanisation of the region and to stop attacks in Pakistan and Afghanistan.  However, the militants did not keep their word and started to rebuild and took over Lal Masjid in Islamabad. After a six-month standoff, a fight erupted in 2007 when the Pakistan Military decided to use force to end the Lal Masjid threat. Once the operation was over the newly formed Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), an umbrella group of militants based in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) vowed revenge and launched a wave of attacks and suicide bombings in North-West  Pakistan  and major cities. The militants expanded their base of operations and moved to the Swat Valley. [33] Operation Rah-e-Haq commenced – November 2007  The first phase of Operation Rah-e-Haq commenced in November 2007 in collaboration with the local police against Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM) in the  Swat Valley . The militants however gradually infiltrated into key cities. The second phase began in July 2008 and continued throughout the year. This operation resulted in the deaths of 36 security persons, 9 civilians and 615 militants. The third was launched in January 2009, which ended after a peace accord, known as Malakand Accord that was signed between the Government and TNSM.[34] This operation resulted in the deaths –   militants.

Operation Sirat-e-Mustaqeem 2008

Commenced in June 2008 but was halted by the Army on July 9, 2008 in Bara Tehsil, Khyber Agency- FATA. It was launched by  Pakistan  Army 40m infantry Division.  PM Yousuf Raza Gillani government ordered the Army against the Taliban forces in Khyber Agency. The immediate trigger for the operation was two kidnappings in Peshawar of six women and a group of 16 Christians by the Islamic group Lashkar-e-Islam. Two militants and one soldier were killed in this operation. However, the major leader managed to escape to an unknown location. Soon after the capture of Bara Tehsil the operation was put to a stop.[35] However, the major leader managed – the capture

Operation Koh-e-Sufaid July 2011

July 4, 2011 the  Pakistan  Army launched another operation against the militants in Kurram Agency located within the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).  Operation Koh-e-Sufaid (White Mountain) targeted militants in Kurram with the principal objective of securing and re-opening Thall Parachinar road which had been repeatedly under attack by Sunni Militants.[36] Operation Koh-e-Sufaid (July 2011) – Pakistan 

Operation Zarb-e-Azb 2013

Operation Zarb-e-Azb was conducted against the following militant groups: Tehrik-i- Pakistan  (TTP), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, East Turkestan Islamic Movement, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Al-Qaeda, Jundallah and the Haqqani Network. The military strategy used for this was SEEK-DESTROY-CLEAR-HOLD. Seek and Destroy component is from the Vietnam War, while Clear and Hold component is from the Iraq War. Pakistan military combined the two doctrines as one for the operation to be successful. The way forward for this would be that the military will seek the target, once found it will be destroyed then the infrastructure, bodies and weapons would be cleared and the area will be held both during and after its completion to ensure post operation and infrastructure rebuilding or rehabilitation doesnt take place. After one and a half years of Zarb-e-Azb phenomenal success was achieved. [37] Operation Zarb-e-Azb was conducted –   militant  The terrorists backbone was broken and their structure dismantled. Nexus sleeper cells largely disrupted and with the Intelligence Based Operations (IBOs) the remaining sleeper cells were busted. 3400 terrorists were killed, 837 hideouts destroyed from where the activities were being conducted. And another 183 hardcore terrorists killed, 21193 arrested. However this success came with a high price, 488 valiant officers, men of  Pakistan  Army, Frontier Corps KPK, Balochistan, Rangers  Sindh  sacrificed their lives and 1914 were injured.The result of this was the overall improved security situation and the terrorist attacks in  Pakistan  had dropped to a six-year low since 2008.[38] Operation Zarb-e-Azb (2013) – Underway 

Pakistan Army Corps

  1. I Corps, Mangla – A “strike” corps, it commands 6 Armoured Division, 8 Independent Armoured Brigade and two Mechanized Infantry Divisions (17 and 37). some elements have been deployed to North West Frontier Province (NWFP) to assist in countering militancy and securing the border with Afghanistan.
  2. II Corps,  Multan  – A “strike” corps with a Mechanized Infantry Division (40), an Infantry Division (14) which was deployed to South Waziristan in 2007, an Armoured Division (1) and an Independent Armoured Brigade.
  3. IV Corps, Lahore – The corps “mission” is to defend the area of  Punjab  province opposite Amritsar in India. it has two Infantry Divisions (10 and 11). two Independent Infantry Brigade Groups (partly mechanized), and one Independent Armoured Brigade Group.
  4. IV Corps,  Lahore  – The corps “mission” is to defend the area of Punjab province opposite Amritsar in India. it has two Infantry Divisions (10 and 11). two Independent Infantry Brigade Groups (partly mechanized), and one Independent Armoured Brigade Group.
  5. X Corps,  Rawalpindi  – Responsible for local security in the event of an emergency (the task of 111 Independent Infantry Brigade,  Rawalpindi ), and for Northern Pakistan and Pakistan-Administered Kashmir. HQ Force Commander Northern Areas (FCNA) is under administrative command of 10 Corps and opcom from GHQ. FCNA commands four Brigades with their HQ in Skardu, Astor, Siachen Glacier and Gilget. most infantry units are Northern Light Infantry Battalions (13), the three Infantry Divisions (12,19,23) have a total of 12 Brigades along the Line of Control (LOC).
  6. XI Corps,  Peshawar  – Two Infantry Divisions (7 and 9) responsible for North West Frontier Province (NWFP), the Afghan Border, and for reinforcement of eastern required. currently involved in counter-insurgency operations, and heavily reinforced by units and formations from eastern corps.
  7. XII Corps,  Quetta  – Two Infantry Divisions (33 and 41) responsible for western  Sindh , the Afghan border, and for reinforcement of eastern formations as required (as took place during the India- Pakistan  confrontation in 2002). also committed to internal security operations against the separatist Baloch National Army (BNA).
  8. XXX Corps,  Bahawalpur  – Two Infantry Divisions (8 and 15), two Independent Armoured Brigade Groups. responsibility for defence of the eastern front, south of IV Corps boundaries.
  9. XXXI Corps,  Gujranwala lpur – Provides depth defence and available for exploitation and counter attack. Commands 26 Mechanized Division and two Infantry Divisions (35 and 40), of which elements have been redeployed to the west.


The principal colour is greenish brown. Dress uniforms were worn mostly on formal occasions. The service uniform was worn for daily duty. [39] History  facts  knowledge – The service uniform for the ground forces was khaki (sand/tan) cotton. Officers purchased their uniforms, but enlisted personnel received a standard uniform issue, which consisted of service and field uniforms, fatigues, and in some cases, dress uniforms. The uniforms consisted of shirt, trousers, sweater, jacket or blouse, and boots. There is also a white dress uniform. The fatigues were the same for winter and summer. [40] The principal colour is greenish –   brown  Heavy winter gear was issued as needed. Headgear included a service cap for dress and semi-dress and a field cap worn with fatigues. Army personnel also wear berets, usually worn in lieu of the service cap.Brown and black and more recently former US BDU style camouflage fatigues are worn by army troop units. The uniform of a Pakistan army soldier exhibits much information i.e. The qualification badges, thedecorations & awards conferred and finally the rank.

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