Karachi originally was a small fisherman village settled by the Baloch tribes from Balochistan and Makran. Their first settlement was near the delta of the Indus River which they named as ‘Kolachi village. The people of the original community yet inhabit the area on small island of Abdullah Goth situated near Karachi Port. The well-known neighbourhood Mai Kolachi of Karachi still reminds the original name of the city. At the end of 1700 century, the settlers of Kolachi village started trading across the sea with Muscat and the Persian Gulf region. Later, the village started to grow as the commercial hub and a port for trade. For the protection of this developing area, a small fort was constructed. This fort was handed over to the rulers of Sindh by the Khan of Kalat in 1795.Though the Karachi region has been inhabited for millennia, the city was founded as a village named Kolachi that was established as a fortified settlement in 1729. The settlement drastically increased in importance with the arrival of British colonialists who embarked on a major works to transform the city into a major seaport, and established connections to the extensive British Indian railway network.By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with an estimated population of 400,000. Immediately following independence of Pakistan, the city’s population increased dramatically with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees from India.Karachi is one of Pakistan’s most secular and socially liberal cities. It is also the most linguistically, ethnically, and religiously diverse city in Pakistan.No census has been conducted in Pakistan since 1998, but with an estimated population of between 15 and 23.5 million people in its greater metropolitan region, Karachi is considered to be the second-largest city in the Muslim world, and is the world’s 7th most populous urban agglomeration.
|City Council:||City Complex, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town|
|Type:||Capital of Sindh province|
|Local Language Name:||Urdu,Sindhhi|
|Elevation:||8 m (26 ft)|
|Government Type:||Metropolitan City|
|Deputy Mayor:||Dr. Arshad A. Vohra|
|Total Area:||3,527 km2 (1,362 sq mi)|
|Time zone:||PKT (UTC+05:00)|
|Postal code:||74XXX 75XXX|
|Dialing code:||+9221-XXXX XXXX|
|Vehicle registration:||Three letters beginning with K and random four numbers|
Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites discovered by a team from Karachi University on the Mulri Hills constitute one of the most important archaeological discoveries made in Sindh during the last 50 years. The earliest inhabitants of the Karachi region are believed to have been hunter-gatherers, with ancient flint tools discovered at several sites.The Karachi region is believed to have been known to the ancient Greeks. The region may be the site of Krokola, where Alexander the Great once camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia, as well as Morontobara which may possibly be Karachi’s Manora neighbourhood.In 711 C.E., Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley. The Karachi region is believed to have been known to the Arabs as Debal, from where Bin Qasim launched his forces into South Asia in 712 C.E. Under Mirza Ghazi Beg the Mughal administrator of Sindh, development of coastal Sindh and the Indus delta was encouraged. Under his rule, fortifications in the region acted as a bulwark against Portuguese incursions into Sindh. The Ottoman admiral, Seydi Ali Reis, mentioned Debal and Manora Island in his book Mir Memlik in 1554.
Karachi was founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi under the rule of the ethnically Baloch Talpur Mirs of Sindh.The founders of the settlement are said to arrived from the nearby town of Karak Bandar after the harbour there silted in 1728 after heavy rains. The settlement was fortified, and defended with cannons imported by Sindhi sailors from Muscat, Oman. The name Karachee was used for the first time in a Dutch document from 1742, in which a merchant ship de Ridderkerk is shipwrecked near the original settlement. The city continued to be ruled by the Talpur Mirs until it was occupied by forces under the command of John Keane in February 1839.
British East India Company captured Karachi on February 3, 1839 after the HMS Wellesley opened fire and quickly destroyed the local mud fort at Manora.The town was annexed to British India in 1843 after Sindh was captured by Major General Charles James Napier in the Battle of Miani, with the city declared capital of the new British province.The city was recognized for its strategic importance, prompting the British to establish the Port of Karachi in 1854. Karachi rapidly became a transportation hub for British India owing to newly built port and rail infrastructure, as well as the increase in agricultural exports from the opening of productive tracts of newly irrigated land in Punjab and interior Sindh. The British also developed the Karachi Cantonment as a military garrison in order to aid the British war effort in the First Anglo-Afghan War.During the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the 21st Native Infantry, then stationed in Karachi, mutinied and declared allegiance to rebel forces in September 1857, though the British were able to quickly defeat the rebels and reassert control over the city. Following the Rebellion, British colonial administrators continued to develop the city. In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent from South Asia to England from Karachi.Public building works were undertaken, including the construction of Frere Hall in 1865 and the later Empress Market. In 1878, the British Raj connected Karachi with the network of British India’s vast railway system.
1947, Karachi was Sindh’s largest city with a population of over 400,000. Despite communal violence across India and Pakistan, Karachi remained relatively peaceful compared to cities further north in Punjab. The city became the focus for the resettlement of Muslim Muhajirs fleeing from the anti-Muslim pogroms in India, leading to a dramatic expansion of the city’s population, and which ultimately transformed its demographics and economy.Karachi was selected as the first capital of Pakistan and served as such until the capital was shifted to Rawalpindi in 1958. While foreign embassies shifted away from Karachi, the city is host to numerous consulates and honorary consulates.Between 1958 and 1970, Karachi’s role as capital of Sindh was ceased due to the One Unit programme enacted by President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.Karachi of the 1960s was regarded as an economic role model around the world, with Seoul, South Korea borrowing from the city’s second “Five-Year Plan.” The 1970s saw major labour struggles in Karachi’s industrial estates. The 1980s and 1990s saw an influx of thousands of Afghan refugees from the Soviet war in Afghanistan into Karachi; who were in turn followed in smaller numbers by refugees escaping from Iran.
Karachi is linked by rail to the rest of the country by Pakistan Railways. The Karachi City Station and Karachi Cantonment Railway Station are the city’s two major railway stations. Peshawar. Pakistan’s rail network, including the Main Line-1 Railway is being upgraded as part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, allowing trains to depart Karachi and travel on Pakistani railways at an average speed of 160 kilometres per hour (99 miles per hour) versus the average 60 to 105 kilometres per hour (37 to 65 miles per hour) speed currently possible on existing track.The city has an international rail link, the Thar Express which links Karachi Cantonment Station with Bhagat Ki Kothi station in Jodhpur, India.The railway system also handles freight linking Karachi port to destinations up-country in northern Pakistan. The city is the terminus for the Main Line-1 Railway which connects Karachi to
Karachi is served by three “Signal-Free Corridors” which are designed as urban express roads to permit traffic to transverse large distances without the need to stop at intersections and stop lights. The first opened in 2007 and connects Shah Faisal Town in eastern Karachi to the industrial-estates in SITE Town 10.5 kilometres (6.5 miles) away. The second corridor connects Surjani Town with Shahrah-e-Faisal over a 19 kilometre span, while the third stretch 28 kilometres (17 miles) and connects Karachi’s urban centre to the Gulistan-e-Johar suburb. A fourth corridor is currently under construction that will link Karachi’s centre to Karachi’s Malir Town.Karachi will be the terminus of the under construction M-9 motorway, which will connect Karachi to Hyderabad. The road is being constructed as part of a much larger motorway network under construction as part of the expansive China Pakistan Economic Corridor. From Hyderabad, motorways have been built, or are being constructed, to provide high-speed road access to the northern Pakistani cities of Peshawar and Mansehra 1,100 kilometres (680 miles) to the north of Karachi. Karachi is also the terminus of the N-5 National Highway which connects the city to the Afghan border near Torkham, and the N-25 National Highway which connects the port city to the Afghan border near Quetta.Within the city of Karachi, the Lyari Expressway is a controlled-access highway under construction along the Lyari River in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Lyari Expressway’s north-bound section is under construction, while the south-bound corridor is open for traffic. This toll highway is designed to relieve congestion in the city of Karachi. To the north of Karachi lies the Karachi Northern Bypass (M10), which starts near the junction of the M9. It then continues north for a few kilometres before turning west, where it intersects the N25.
The largest shipping ports in Pakistan are the Port of Karachi and the nearby Port Qasim, the former being the oldest port of Pakistan. Port Qasim is located 35 kilometres (22 miles) east of the Port of Karachi on the Indus River estuary. These ports handle 95% of Pakistan’s trade cargo to and from foreign ports. These seaports have modern facilities which include bulk handling, containers and oil terminals.Plans have been announced for new passenger facilities at the Port of Karachi.
Karachi’s Jinnah International Airport is the largest and busiest airport of Pakistan with a total of 6.2 million passengers in 2015. The current terminal structure was built in 1992, and is divided into international and domestic sections. Karachi’s airport serves as a hub for the flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), as well as for Air Indus, Shaheen Air, and airblue. The airport offers non-stop flights to destinations throughout East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Persian Gulf States, Europe and North America.
Karachi is one of Pakistan most religiously diverse cities. independence of Pakistan, much of Karachi Hindu population left for India while Muslim refugees from India in turn settled in the city. The city continued to attract migrants from throughout Pakistan, who were overwhelmingly Muslim, and city population nearly doubled again in the 1950s. As a result of continued migration, over 90% of the city is now estimated to be Muslim.Karachi is overwhelmingly Muslim, though the city is one of Pakistan’s most secular cities. Approximately 65% of Karachi Muslims are Sunnis, while 35% are Shi’ites. Sunnis primarily follow the Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with Sufism influencing religious practices by encouraging reverence for Sufi saints such as Abdullah Shah Ghazi and Mewa Shah. Shi’ites are predominantly Twelver, with a significant Ismaili minority which is further subdivided into Nizaris, Mustaalis, Dawoodi Bohras, and Sulaymanis.Karachiites adhere to numerous sects and sub-sects of Islam, as well as Protestant Christianity, and community of Goan Catholics. The city also is home to large numbers of Hindus, and a small community of Zoroastrians.Prior to Pakistan independence in 1947, the population of the city was estimated to be 50% Muslim, 40% Hindu, with the remaining 10% primarily Christians (both British and native), with a small numbers of Jews. Following the
The first inhabitants of the Kolachi settlement were mostly Sindhi fishermen and Baloch nomads. The oldest portions of modern Karachi reflect the ethnic composition of the first settlement, with Balochis and Sindhis continuing to make up a large portion of the Lyari neighbourhood,though many of the residents are relatively recent migrants. Following Partition, large numbers of Hindus fled Pakistan for the newly-independent Republic of India, while a larger percentage of Muslim refugees fleeing anti-Muslim pogroms in India settled in Karachi. The city grew 150% during the ten period between 1941 and 1951 with the arrival of refugees from India, who made up 57% of Karachi population in 1951.The city is now considered a melting pot of Pakistan, and is the country most diverse city. In 2011, an estimated 2.5 million foreign migrants lived in the city, mostly from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.Non Urdu-speaking refugees also arrived in the city, with Karachi home to a wide array of Muslim peoples from what is now the Republic of India. The city has a sizable community of Gujarati, Marathi, Konkani-speaking refugees. Karachi is also home to a several-thousand member strong community of Malabari Muslims from Kerala in South India. These ethno-linguistic groups are being assimilated in the Urdu-speaking community.Despite being the capital of Sindh province, only 68% of the city is Sindhi. Sindhis form much of the municipal and provincial bureaucracy. 4% of Karachi population speaks Balochi as its mother tongue, though most Baloch speakers are of Sheedi heritage a community that traces its roots to Africa.
Karachi is home to some of Pakistan’s important cultural institutions. The National Academy of Performing Arts,located in the former Hindu Gymkhana, offers diploma courses in performing arts that includes classical music and contemporary theatre. Karachi is home to groups such as Thespianz Theater, a professional youth-based, non-profit performing arts group, which works on theatre and arts activities in Pakistan.
Karachi is a tourist destination for domestic and international tourists. Tourist attractions near Karachi city include:Museums: Museums located in Karachi include the National Museum of Pakistan, Pakistan Air Force Museum, and Pakistan Maritime Museum.Parks: Parks located in Karachi include Bagh Ibne Qasim, Boat Basin Park, Mazar-e-Quaid, Karachi Zoo, Hill Park, Safari Park, Bagh-e-Jinnah, PAF Museum Park and Maritime Museum Park.
Karachi has a collection of buildings and structures of varied architectural styles. The downtown districts of Saddar and Clifton contain early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neo-classical KPT building to the Sindh High Court Building. Karachi acquired its first neo-Gothic or Indo-Gothic buildings when Frere Hall, Empress Market and St. Patrick’s Cathedral were completed. The Mock Tudor architectural style was introduced in the Karachi Gymkhana and the Boat Club. Neo-Renaissance architecture was popular in the 19th century and was the architectural style for St. Joseph’s Convent (1870) and the Sind Club (1883).The classical style made a comeback in the late 19th century, as seen in Lady Dufferin Hospital (1898) and the Cantt. Railway Station. While Italianate buildings remained popular, an eclectic blend termed Indo-Saracenic or Anglo-Mughal began to emerge in some locations.The local mercantile community began acquiring impressive structures. Zaibunnisa Street in the Saddar area (known as Elphinstone Street in British days) is an example where the mercantile groups adopted the Italianate and Indo-Saracenic style to demonstrate their familiarity with Western culture and their own. The Hindu Gymkhana (1925) and Mohatta Palace are examples of Mughal revival buildings.The Sindh Wildlife Conservation Building, located in Saddar, served as a Freemasonic Lodge until it was taken over by the government. There are talks of it being taken away from this custody and being renovated and the Lodge being preserved with its original woodwork and ornate wooden staircase.
Major universities Include:
- University of Karachi
- National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences FAST-NU
- Institute of Business Administration, Karachi
- National University of Sciences and Technology, Karachi
- Aga Khan University
- Habib University
- Jinnah Medical and Dental College
- Jinnah Sindh Medical University
- Indus Valley School of Art & Architecture
- Pakistan Air Force Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology
- United Medical and Dental College
When it comes to sports Karachi has a distinction, because some sources cite that it was in 1877 at Karachi in (British) India, where the first attempt was made to form a set of rules of badminto and likely place is said to Frere Hall.Cricket in Pakistan has a history of even before the creation of the country in 1947. The first ever international cricket match in Karachi was held on 22 November 1935 between Sindh and Australian cricket teams. The match was seen by 5,000 Karachiites. Karachi Kings, Karachi Blues, Karachi Greens, and Karachi Whites. The National Stadium hosted two group matches (Pakistan v. South Africa on 29 February and Pakistan v. England on 3 March), and a quarter-final match (South Africa v. West Indies on 11 March) during the 1996 Cricket World Cup.The inaugural first-class match at the National Stadium was played between Pakistan and India on 26 February 1955 and since then Pakistani national cricket team has won 20 of the 41 Test matches played at the National Stadium. The first One Day International at the National Stadium was against the West Indies on 21 November 1980, with the match going to the last ball.The national team has been less successful in such limited-overs matches at the ground, including a five-year stint between 1996 and 2001, when they failed to win any matches. The city has been host to a number of domestic cricket teams including
Sometimes stated to be among the world’s most dangerous cities,the extent of violent crime in Karachi is not as significant in magnitude as compared to other cities. According to the Numbeo Crime Index 2014, Karachi was the 6th most dangerous city in the world. By the middle of 2016, Karachi’s rank had dropped to 31 following the launch of anti-crime operations.The city’s large population results in high numbers of homicides with a moderate homicide rate. Karachi’s homicide rates are lower than many Latin American cities, and in 2015 was 12.5 per 100,000 lower than the homicide rate of several American cities such as New Orleans and St. Louis.The homicide rates in some Latin American cities such as Caracas, Venezuela and Acapulco, Mexico are in excess of 100 per 100,000 residents, many times greater than Karachi’s homicide rate.
Karachi had become widely known for its high rates of violent crime, but rates sharply decreased following a controversial crackdown operation against criminals, the MQM party, and Islamist militants initiated in 2013 by the Pakistan Rangers. In 2015, 1,040 Karachiites were killed in either acts of terror or crime an almost 50% decrease from the 2,023 deaths in 2014, and an almost 70% decrease from the 3,251 deaths recorded in 2013 the highest ever recorded number in Karachi history. Despite a sharp decrease in violent crime, street crime remains high.With 650 homicides in 2015, Karachi’s homicide rate decreased by 75% compared to 2013. Extortion crimes decreased by 80%, while kidnappings decreased by 90% during the same period. As a result of the Karachi’s improved security environment, real-estate prices in Karachi rose sharply in 2015. In addition to increased land values, upmarket restaurants and caf©s were described by Reuters as “overflowing.