The Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاک بحریہ, Pak Bahr’ya) (PN) is the naval warfare/service branch of thePakistan Armed Forces. Pakistan’s Navy is responsible for Pakistan’s 1,046 kilometres (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important civilian harbors and military bases. Navy Day is celebrated on September 8 in commemoration of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Pakistan Navy’s current and primary role is to protect country’s economical and military interests at home and abroad, executing the foreign and defence policies of Pakistan Government through the exercise of military effect, diplomatic activities and other activities in support of these objectives.As for the 21st century, the Pakistan Navy also focuses on global expeditionary operations, and played a vital role in the establishment of Pakistan Antarctic Programme. Since 2001, the Pakistan Navy has increased and expanded its operational scope and has been given greater national and international responsibility in countering the threat of sea-based global terrorism, drug smuggling and trafficking issues.The
|In Urdu:||پاکستان بحریہ|
|Motto:||Himmat ka aalam, Allah ka karam, Moujon pay qadam|
|Founded:||14 August 1947 – present|
|Chief of Naval Staff :||Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah|
|Vice Chief of Naval Staff :||Vice Admiral Hasham Siddique|
|commanders :||Admiral Mohammad Shariff , Admiral Iftikhar Ahmed Sirohey , Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan|
|Battle honours :||Nishan-e-Haider|
|Decorations :||Military and Civil decorations of Pakistan|
|Engagements :||Indo-Pakistan war of 1965 Bangladesh Liberation War Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Indo-Pakistani War of 1999 2004 Tsunami Relief Operations Operation Madad Operations Near the HOA War in North-West Pakistan Balochistan conflict|
|Anniversaries :||Navy Day is on 8 September|
|Formed:||14 August 1947 – present|
|Legal Personality:||Pakistan Armed Forces|
|Uniform Colour:||Navy blue and White|
|Executive:||Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah|
|Bomber :||Dassault Mirage VF|
|Electronic warfare :||Hawker 850–XP|
|Helicopter :||Westland Sea King, Aérospatiale SA-319B Alouette III, Harbin Z-9|
|Patrol :||Lockheed P-3C Orion, Fokker F27-2000, Breguet Atlantique I, ATR-72-500|
|Reconnaissance :||GIDS Uqab, Boeing ScanEagle, EMT Luna X|
The foundation of the Royal Pakistan Navy came a day after the independence of Pakistan on 15 August 1947. The Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee (AFRC) divided the Royal Indian Navy between both India and Pakistan . The Royal Pakistan Navy secured two sloops, two frigates, four minesweepers, two naval trawlers, four harbor launches and some 358 personnel (180 officers and 34 ratings) and was given a number of harbour defence motor launches. It was also given a high percentage of the delta areas on the Pakistan coast.
The Royal Pakistan Navy saw no action during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 as all the fighting was restricted to land warfare. In 1956 the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was proclaimed under the 1956 constitution. The prefix Royal was dropped and the service was re-designated as the Pakistan Navy, or “PN” for short. The PN Jack and Pakistan flag replaced the Queen’s colour and the White Ensign respectively. The order of precedence of the three services changed from Navy, Army, Air force to Army, Navy, Air Force. In February 1956, the British government announced supplying of several major surface combatants to Pakistan . These warships, a cruiser and four destroyers were purchased with funds made available under the US Military Assistance Program. The acquisition of a few additional warships from 1956–63, comprising two destroyers, eight coastal minesweepers and an oiler, was the direct result of Pakistan’s participation in the anti-Communist defence pacts of SEATO and CENTO.
Indo-Pakistan war of 1965
During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the navy was involved in a conflict for the first time. Apart from carrying out successful bombardment of the coastal town of Dwaraka – codenamed Operation Dwarka, the navy’s submarine PNS Ghazi was deployed, Pakistan’s first submarine and remaining the flagship submarine for Pakistan Navy till deployed against Indian Navy’s western fleet at Bombay (Mumbai) port.
Indo-Pakistan war of 1971
Karachi, the hub of Pakistan’s maritime trade, housed the combatant headquarters of the Pakistan Navy and almost the entire naval fleet. On December 4 the Indian Navy launched a naval attack, Operation Trident, consisting of 3 OSA class missile boatsescorted by two anti-submarine patrol vessels. Nearing the Karachi port, they detected Pakistani presence and launched their SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missiles. The obsolescent Pakistani ships had no viable defence against such missiles and, as a result, the PNSMuhafiz and PNS Khyber were both sunk while the PNS Shahjahan was damaged beyond repair. On 8 December 1971 the Hangor, a Pakistani Daphné class submarine, sank the Indian frigate INS Khukri off the coast of Gujarat, India. This was the first sinking of a warship by a submarine since World War II. 18 officers and 176 sailors of the Indian navy were killed in this operation. The same submarine also damaged another warship, INS Kirpan. Attempts were then made by Pakistan to counter the Indian missile boat threat by carrying out bombing raids over Okha harbour, the forward base of the missile boats. Another Indian attack on the Pakistani coast, named Operation Python, occurred on the night of 8 December 1971. A small group of Indian vessels, consisting of a missile boat and two frigates, approached Karachi . The Indian ships sank the Panamian vessel Gulf Star, while the Pakistan Navy’s Dacca and the British ship SS Harmattan were damaged. Pakistani fuel reserves were also destroyed by the Indian vessels.The damage inflicted by the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force on the PN stood at seven gunboats, oneminesweeper, two destroyers, three patrol crafts belonging to the coast guard, 18 cargo, supply and communication vessels, and large scale damage inflicted on the naval base and docks in the coastal town of Karachi. Three merchant navy ships; Anwar Baksh, Pasni and Madhumathi; and ten smaller vessels were captured.Around 1900 personnel were lost, while 1413 servicemen were captured by Indian forces inDhaka.The Indian Navy lost 18 officers and 176 sailors and a frigate, while another frigate was damaged and a Breguet Alizé naval aircraft was shot down by the Pakistan Air Force. According to one Pakistan scholar, Tariq Ali, the Pakistan Navy lost a third of its force in the war. The primary reason for this loss has been attributed to the central command’s failure in defining a role for the Navy, or the military in general, in East Pakistan. Since then the Navy has sought to improve the structure and fleet by putting special emphasis on sub-surface warfare capability as it allows for the most efficient way to deny the control of Pakistani sea lanes to an adversary.
Post war Operations
The Pakistan Navy played an integral role to stop the arm smuggled in Balochistan conflict. After the discovery of Arms in the Iraqi Embassy in Pakistan , the Navy made an effort to apply a naval blockade to prevent arms smuggling in the Province. Later, the navy provided logistic support to the Army and the Air Force in the conflict.From her inception, the Navy sought to diversify its purchases instead of depending solely on the United States, which had placed an arms embargo on both India and Pakistan . It sought more vessels from France and China. The Pakistan Navy thus became the first navy in South Asia to acquire land based missile capable long range reconnaissance aircraft.During the Kargil War episode, the Pakistan Navy was deactivated along with the Pakistan Air Force, according to Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Fasih Bokhari. However, when Indian Navy launched Operation Talwar, Pakistan Navy responded by deploying Eastern and Southern Naval Command to keep Indian Navy from Ports of Karachi and Baluchistan. The Naval Air Arm maintained its reconnaissance and patrol operations near at the Arabian sea. During the 2001–2002 India-Pakistan Standoff, the Pakistan Navy was a put on high-alert and more than a dozen warships were deployed near at the Arabian Sea.Later in 2004, the Pakistan Navy participated in Operation Enduring Freedom along with U.S. warships traveling through the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf. The PN Maritime patrol and reconnaissance aircraft also undertook surveillance sorties in North Arabian Sea and helped the Headquarters Naval Centre (HQ NAVCENT) in picture compilation.
Pakistan Navy has an academy of its own called the Pakistan Naval Academy, it is the home of initial training of officers of Pakistan Navy. The academy also has provided basic training to the officers of Allied Navies. The Chief of Naval Staff of Qatar Emiri Navy and many high ranking officers of Royal Saudi Navy as well as other navies in the Gulf were graduates of the PNA. The academy is a full fledged training institution catering to the needs to Pakistani junior Naval officers. The Navy also has its own navy war college called the Pakistan Navy War College specializing in imparting Naval Warfare techniques to officers of the Pakistan marine forces.
Other worthwhile training institutions are:
- PNS Bahadur: conducts specialist courses.
- PNS Himalaya: for basic training of sailors. HET is a way to be commissioned officer from sailors.
- PNS Karsaz: It is the Largest and the most organized technical training Establishment of Pakistan Navy. The establishment has the privilege to host many heads of states since its commissioning. It is considered the mother unit of PNS MEHRAN, PNS JAUHAR, PNS BAHADUR, ASD and other PN units in that area. The unit celebrated its golden jubilee in 2003 under the command of Cdre M B Chaudhry. PNS KARSAZ also houses one of the most modern Special Children School which was built at the cost of Rs 88.00 Millions during 2003–5. Cdre M Bashir Chaudhry who was the commandant KARSAZ during this period was the force behind this project who collected the funds through philanthropists. Rangoon wala trust contributed the most. In fact PNS KARSAZ is a complete.
- Naval Engineering College: for technical training of officers.
Note: The Naval Engineering College has been absorbed by the National University of Sciences and Technology and has become its constituent Pakistan Navy Engineering College, where officers and civilian students are offered degrees in Electrical, Mechanical and Electronics Engineering.
108th Passing Out Prade
The 108th Midshipmen commissioning parade was on Saturday on 23rd December 2017, held at the Pakistan Naval Academy in Karachi which included candidates from Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar, Maldives and Saudi Arabia as well.
Prime Minister (PM) Shahid Khaqan Abbasi was the chief guest on the occasion and was given a guard of honour. Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi also attended the passing out parade of 129 officers comprising 57 Pakistanis.
It is worth mentioning here that Pakistan has so far trained more than 2200 cadets from other countries. The current naval chiefs of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain have also received training from the Pakistan Naval Academy.
Special Operation Forces
Special Services Group N
The Special Service Group Navy (SSG) is a principle and an elite naval special operations component mandate to conduct clandestine operations. Official numbers place the strength between 1000 to 1240 in 3 Regiments.
Pakistan Navy established Pakistan Marines sometime in 1971, but it was decommissioned from its services following the aftermath of Indo-Pakistani war of 1971. However, Pakistan Marines was re-established on April 14, 1990 with about 2,000 men and plans to expand the force to the size of the Corps, significantly by 2015. The Marines are under the control of Pakistan Navy, using the same military ranks. The Marines are currently headquartered atQasim Marine Base, Karachi .
The Naval Chiefs
The Chief of Naval Staff (CNS), a 4-star Admiral, is a most senior and high ranking member officer of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee as well as the National Security Council (NSC), and is responsible for the sea defense of the country.
|1||Rear Admiral James Wilfred Jefford||August 15, 1947 – January 30, 1953|
|2||Vice Admiral Haji Mohammad Siddiq Choudri||January 31, 1953 – 28 February 1959|
|3||Vice Admiral Afzal Rahman Khan||March 1, 1959 – October 20, 1966|
|4||Vice Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan||October 20, 1966 – August 31, 1969|
|5||Vice Admiral Muzaffar Hassan||September 1, 1969 – December 22, 1971|
|6||Vice Admiral Hasan Hafeez Ahmed||March 3, 1972 – March 9, 1975|
|7||Admiral Mohammad Shariff||March 23, 1975 – March 21, 1979|
|8||Admiral Karamat Rahman Niazi||March 22, 1979 – March 23, 1983|
|9||Admiral Tariq Kamal Khan||March 23, 1983 – April 9, 1986|
|10||Admiral Iftikhar Ahmed Sirohey||April 9, 1986 – November 9, 1988|
|11||Admiral Yastur-ul-Haq Malik||November 10, 1988 – November 8, 1991|
|12||Admiral Saeed Mohammad Khan||November 9, 1991 – November 9, 1994|
|13||Mansurul Haq||November 10, 1994 – May 1, 1997|
|14||Admiral Fasih Bokhari||May 2, 1997 – October 2, 1999|
|15||Admiral Abdul Aziz Mirza||October 2, 1999 – October 2, 2002|
|16||Admiral Shahid Karimullah||October 3, 2002 – October 6, 2005|
|17||Admiral Afzal Tahir||October 7, 2005 – October 7, 2008|
|18||Admiral Noman Bashir||October 7, 2008–October 7, 2011|
|19||Admiral Muhammad Asif Sandila||October 7, 2011– Persent|
|1||Vice Admiral Abbas Raza, HI(M)||Commander Karachi (COMKAR), Karachi|
|2||Vice Admiral Khalid Amin, HI(M)||Commander Logistics (COMLOG), Karachi|
|3||Rear Admiral Tahseen Ullah Khan, SI(M)||Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST), Karachi|
|4||Rear Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah, SI(M)||Commander Pakistan Fleet (COMPAK), Karachi|
|5||Rear Admiral Zafar Mehmood Abbasi, SI(M)||Commander Coast (COMCOAST), Karachi|
|6||Rear Admiral Shah Sohail Masood, SI(M)||Commander North (COMNOR), Islamabad|
|7||Rear Admiral Syed Bashir Ahmed, SI(M)||Commandant Pakistan Navy War College (PNWC) & Commander Central Punjab (COMCEP) Lahore|
|8||Rear Admiral Syed Imdad Imam Jafri, SI(M)||Commandant, Pakistan Navy Engineering College (Comdt PNEC), Karachi|
|Rank||Admiral||Vice Admiral||Rear Admiral||Commodore||Captain||Commander||Lieutenant Commander||Lieutenant||Sub Lieutenant||Midshipman|
|Uniform Insignia||(4 Star)||(3 Star)||(2 Star)||(1 Star)|
First Pakistani PM to Sail a Sub-Marine
24 Dec 2017 – Shahid Khaqan Abbasi became the first Prime minister of Pakistan who boarded, sailed and dived on a submarine. PM Abbasi also witnessed Pakistan Navy’s display of power on his visit to the Jinnah Naval Base Ormara.The Prime Minister devoted his full day to witness the operational preparedness of Pakistan Navy.Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi and senior naval officials also accompanied the PM.The Prime Minister set sail onboard Pakistan Navy Submarine SAAD in North Arabian Sea. Chief of the Naval Staff, Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi also accompanied the Premier during his maiden voyage onboard the submarine. The Prime Minister also conducted submarine diving and surfacing procedures.During his visit onboard the submarine, Prime Minister was briefed about history of Pakistan Navy submarine force and achievements made by this elite force during 1965 and 1971 wars.