Indus Valley refers to the ancient sites that started from Afghanistan and goes through Pakistan and India. It had one of the ancient and large civilizations under the name of Indus Valley Civilization which existed between 3300 BC and 1200 BC. Moreover, the people of the valley used to live along River Indus which flows through Pakistan and India.
It is known for its civilization which included the system of water supply, urban planning, drainage system, handicrafts, seal carving, baked – Brich homes, and non-residential buildings. Furthermore, Harappa and Mohenjo – Daro is considered to be the ancient sites of the Indus Valley Civilization.
During the 3rd century, the soil of the valley dried which resulted in a scarcity of water and dispersed the people of the region to east and south Asia. The civilization of the Indus Valley is also called Harappa Civilization. The article comprises all the information including Indus Valley Origin.
|Local Language Name:||وادئ سندھ|
|Coordinates :||24.8116° N, 67.0156° E|
|Flourished:||In the basins of the Indus River|
|Earliest evidence Discovered:||Cattle herding in south Asia comes from the Indus River|
|Encompassed :||(IVC) encompassed much of Pakistan and northeastern Afghanistan|
|Geography of Valley:||Highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru|
|Total Area:||(450,000 sq mi)|
|Time zone:||PST (UTC+5)|
|Area dialing code:||074|
|Languages:||Urdu, Pothohari, Sindhi, English|
Table of Contents
Indus Valley Origin
The name of the Indus valley is due to the system of the Indus River where a number of early sites are excavated. In 1920, Harrapa was the first Indus site that was excavated. Other sites including Ghaggar Hakra and Mohenjo – Daro were excavated and identified later.
Indus Valley Sites
The valley lies in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India but about 90 % of the region of the Valley was gifted to Pakistan after independence. A total number of 616 sites of Indus Valley Civilization are founded in India while 406 sites are founded in Pakistan. These sites of the valley include the following.
Harappa was the first ancient site of Indus Valley Civilization which was founded in Punjab during British Rule in 1920. It is located at a distance of 24 kilometers from Sahiwal. It contains a total population of 15 thousand people. A number of inscriptions including Sumerians of Mesopotamia and stamps have been founded in the region. In 2002, more than Harappa Sites have been founded and excavated.
Mohenjo – Daro
After the excavation of Harappa, the site of the province Sindh attracted the attention of the archeologists where many cities of the valley existed. In 1931, the sites of Mohenjo – Daro were excavated and verified by archeologists during British Rule.
Other ancient Indus Valley sites include Ganeriwala, Dholavira, and Rakhigarh which were excavated in India while the site of Meher Garh was identified and excavated in Baluchistan.
Kot – Deji is another archeological site of Harappa Civilization in Sindh, Pakistan which represents the central authority of the Indus Valley. Other site includes Rupar, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Lothal, and Rakhigarh.
Indus Valley Civilization
The people are considered the most civilized people of the era as their lifestyle was far better than the life of people existing in the valley. They had a unique Urban Planning and municipal government. They excavated wells from drinking water and the water is obtained through the hydraulic system. It was used for drinking as well as bathing. The wastewater is then directed toward a beautifully designed drainage system.
The houses were made of fire bricks which used to open inside smaller lanes and courtyards as well as the roads were constructed in every possible region. Furthermore, they were also advanced in architectural works as they constructed many protective forts, granaries, platforms of bricks, and warehouses.
Archaeologists did not answer any specific government but founded a number of proofs that show that there was a best and advanced government central system. The evidence includes seals, bricks, and weights which are used for daily business during the era. There are three main theories about the government system of Indus Valley which are stated as:
There was no government system and the people of the region used to live with unity and harmony as well as they had equal status, no one was superior and none of them was inferior. The other theory says that there was a single state ruler while presenting the standard size bricks, seals, and others as evidence while supporting the statement.
The third theory states that there was no single government rather each site including Harappa and Mohenjo – Daro had different rulers.
Arts and Crafting
A number of seals, jewelry, sculptures, pottery, and bronze vessels have been founded in archeological sites which shows that the people of the region were experts in art and crafting Different Terracotta figures including, bull, dog, bear, and monkey have been excavated which represents their civilization.
Crafts including steatite bead making, shell working, and ceramics were made by the people of the region. Furthermore, many crafting pieces include bangles, necklaces, and other monuments were excavated which shows their modern crafting ability.
The people of the valley were used to worship idols and different gods. The idols excavated in different sites show that the people of the region were followers of Hinduism.
Transport and Trade
The transport system of the region was that much advanced that they were the first who used wheeled transport including bull–carts. They also used boats for their transport system through the sea and rivers.
Furthermore, the economy of the region was fully dependant on trade as they used to produce crops in the region and were exported to the regions of Arab and Gulf including KSA, Bahrain, and Egypt. Archeologists stated that the canal which is located in Lothal was used by the people of the valley for irrigating their crops which were exported to the other regions.
The region has fertile land due to the river Indus which flows throughout the valley. The Punjab regions were mainly used for the production of crops. All types of seasonal crops were cultivated here. In the season of summer beans, millet and rice were cultivated while in the season of winter pulses, barley and wheat were cultivated.
After cultivation, these crops were exported to other countries and exchanged for the goods they needed. Furthermore, all of the trading systems were dependent upon sea transport, for which many boats were built under different designs.