The Government of Pakistan is the federal govt established by the Pakistani Constitution as a governing authority consisting of 4-provinces, 2-autonomous territories, and 1-federal territory of the parliamentary republic. The country’s full name is the ‘Islamic Republic of Pakistan,’ and this name appears in legal cases, treaties, and money.
The Government of Pakistan or Pakistan Government is often used in the official documents. The terms ‘National’ and ‘Federal’ in government institutes indicate the affiliation with Federal Govt. The article contains all the information about the Government, including the Government of Pakistan Structure.
|Name:||Government of Pakistan|
|In Urdu:||حکومتِ پاکستان|
|Constitutionally Called :||Islamic Republic of Pakistan|
|In Urdu:||اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان|
|Tiers of Government:||Pakistan is a federal republic with three tiers|
|Names of Tiers :||Central, Provincial and Local|
|Local Government :||Under the constitution in Articles 32 and 140-A|
|Branches of Government:||Executive, legislative, and judicial Branches|
|Cabinet :||Consisted of the elected officers of the executive branch of Government|
|Cabinet Established :||Under the Article 81D|
|Cabinet members :||Appointed by Prime Minister|
|Used in Official Documents :||Pakistan Government or Government of Pakistan|
|Government Program Names :||Federal and National|
|Metonym :||Islamabad is commonly used as a metonym|
|National Assembly :||Consisted of Two House|
|Names of House:||Lower House & Upper House|
|Lower House:||342 members|
|Direct Elected :||272 are elected|
|Reserved Seats:||70 seats for women and religious minorities|
|Upper House:||104 members (senators)|
|Elections and voting system :||Under the constitution in Article 58|
|Provincial Government :||There are four provincial governments|
|Provincial Government heads by:||Chief Minister|
|Governors appointed by :||President & Prime minister|
|Tribal & Local government:||3rd level of government|
|Major Parties:||PTI, PML-(N), PPP, ANP, JIP, JUI, MQM, PAT, PSP, STP, TEI|
|Provinces:||Balochistan. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Punjab. Sindh|
|GDP:||42nd largest (nominal GDP)|
|Purchasing power:||25th largest|
|Defense Budget:||US$6.98 billion Estimated|
|Prime Minister:||Executive head of government of Pakistan|
|President:||A ceremonial head of state|
|In 1956:||Established Election Commission|
|In 1973:||Established Constitution of Pakistan|
|In 1956:||Established Supreme Court (SCOP)|
|In 1950:||Institutional and judicial procedures were changed|
Government of Pakistan Structure
The Government is primarily made of judicial, legislative, and executive branches, where Constitution bestows all powers and authorities in Supreme Court, Prime Minister, and Parliament. The amendments and acts of Parliament define these branches’ duties and management, including the formation of departments, courts, and executive institutes inferior to SC (Supreme Court). Constitutionally, President passes bills and promulgates ordinances.
Duties of President, PM & Federal Secretaries
The President performs the role of state head, and Prime Minister performs the function of Chief-Executive and is responsible for running the federal Govt. The Parliament has a lower house called National Assembly and an upper house called Senate.
Federal Secretaries are the most powerful and authoritative officials in the Pakistani Government; they are the highest-ranking bureaucrats in Pakistan and run divisions and cabinet-level ministries.
Federal Law & Constitution
Pakistan’s Constitution established and made a federal Govt of 4-provinces of the Federation known as the Pakistani StateState. The Federal Govt is subject to the Constitution. It would exercise the Federation’s executive authority in President’s name by the Federal Govt consisting of Federal Ministers, and PM which shall act via PM, who shall be the Federation’s chief executive.
The PM may perform his duties directly or via Federal Ministers. The primary criminal and civil laws governing the Pakistani citizens are made in parliamentary legislation, like PPC (Pakistan Penal Code), FCR (Frontier Crimes Regulations), and ECL (Exit Control List).
By 246th Article and 247th Article of Pakistani Constitution, the Panchayat or Islamic Jirga system is an institute for the local governance.
Government of Pakistan Branches
The Government’s executive branch has sole responsibility and authority for the administration of the country’s bureaucracy. The power division into the separate government branches is central to the idea of ‘Separation of Powers.’ This system is made to deliver powers away from the executive branch.
PM & Cabinet
The Pakistani PM is Government’s executive head, constitutionally appointed as CE (Chief Executive). The direct electoral process elects the PM in Parliament; PM is in charge of making the Cabinet and running Government operations.
The PM is responsible for making appointments on several significant posts, including:
- The provinces’ chief-secretaries
- The Federal-Secretaries as the head of the cabinet level-ministries
- The PM also appoints the chairperson for public-sector corporations and organizations like PNSC, PIA, TCP, NHA, etc.
- Military Personnel & Key administrative in Pakistan Armed-Forces
- High Commissioners & Ambassadors to other states/countries
- The Chairperson and members of public institutes and federal commissions
Maximum eleven percent of Parliament’s total strength could be included in the Cabinet, and every cabinet member must be a Parliament member. The Cabinet Ministers act as chairperson of Cabinet, and Pakistan’s Cabinet Secretary assist them.
Once appointed by PM, all the Cabinet Ministers’ appointment is confirmed officially by President in the special oath ceremony.
Government of Pakistan President
Pakistan’s President is State’s head representing Pakistan’s unity. The President is elected for 5-years by an electoral college comprising Senate members, 4-provincial assemblies, and National Assembly members. No individual is allowed to hold the post for over 2-consecutive terms.
Two-Thirds of the votes by Parliament members could remove President from office due to his misconduct or incapacity. The President makes the following appointments:
- Governors of 4-Provinces
- The CEC (Chief Election Commissioner)
- The Chief Justice
- The Auditor-General and Comptroller and Attorney General
The President receives testimonials of diplomats from other countries, and PM, as Head of the Govt, receives testimonials of High-Commissioners from Commonwealth’s other members.
Pakistan’s President has the power to pardon, commute, or suspend any sentence passed by any authority, tribunal, or court, especially in cases involving a death sentence.
The self-governing Judicial system of Pakistan started under the British Government, and its procedures and concepts are similar to those of the ‘Anglo-Saxon Countries.’ Later in 1950, the judicial and institutional policies were changed under American Judicial System domination to eliminate fundamental rights problems.
The judicial system consists of District Courts, Provisional High-Courts, Pakistan’s Supreme Court, Sharia Courts, Environmental Courts, and Anti-Terrorism Courts. Supreme Court of Pakistan is a superior court and comprises senior judges and Chief Justice designated by President after consulting with Chief Justice of Pakistan.
The Supreme Court has the authority to make the ‘Judicature Transfers.’ Though the legal proceedings carried out in Supreme Court originate from its subordinate courts’ orders or judgments, the SC (Supreme Court) has the right and power to transfer any appeal, proceedings, or case pending before one High Court to another High Court.
It is mentioned in the Pakistani Constitution that the misbehavior of judges is intolerable. Under the main-frame of Pakistan’s Supreme Judicial Council 209 Article, an inquiry into the conduct or capacity of the judge, who is a Council member, could be conducted.
Pakistan’s Civil Service is a permanent bureaucracy of the Pakistani Government, and Civil servants enjoy a reputed and respectable position in civil society and serve as Government’s permanent officials. Not all Government employees are civil servants of the Pakistani Government; other employees come from state-owned organizations, scientific institutes, and military circles.
In a parliamentary system, ministers have the responsibility of running administration. These ministers are answerable to legislatures elected by the public. The Cabinet & its ministers set policy guidelines, and bureaucracy is responsible for enforcing and implementing them.
The federal-secretaries are capable, experienced, and senior officials in Pakistan. Each division/ministry has the Secretary to enforce and oversee policy matters. The secretaries are grade-22 officers and are considered the most authoritative officials in Pakistan.
Due to their assignments, some 12-Federal Secretaries are regarded as most important in the Pakistani Government. These include Secretary Interior, Secretary Cabinet, Secretary Establishment, Secretary Commerce, Secretary to PM, Secretary Finance, Secretary Foreign Affairs, Secretary Power, Secretary Planning & Development, Secretary Maritime-Affairs, Secretary Industries, and Secretary Petroleum.
Cabinet Division must manage significant crises in Pakistan and coordinate the performance and responsibilities of several ministries.
Elections & Voting System
Since its foundation in 1947, Pakistan has an unsymmetrical federal Government consisting of elected office-bearers at local, tribal, provincial, and national levels. According to the Constitution, the Pakistani Government’s limit is 5-years, but if no confidence-motion happens in Parliament, the Government collapses, and the caretaker government replaces it.
The martial law was implemented for the 4-times in the country, and Supreme Court controversially approved it. Elections take place after five years.
Administration & Governments
Provincial & Local Governments
There are 4-provincial governments ruling 4-provinces of StateState, and CM leads the Government of StateState. All the provincial assemblies have a single parliamentary chamber, elected for 5-years.
President appoints Governors after consultation with PM, and those Governors act as representatives of the Federal Government and don’t have any role in running Government. The Local and tribal Government functions at the primary level.
Taxation & Budget
Pakistan has a full-fledged taxation system of over seventy taxes, and thirty-seven tax collection institutes administer this taxation system. Taxation is a controversial and debated matter in political science and the public circle of Pakistan.
According to the Intl Development Committee (IDC), Pakistan had a lower tax take, and only a 0.57% population out of 190 million people paid the income tax. Pakistan’s Finance Minister presents the yearly annual budget in Parliament in the middle of the year, and both Parliament houses pass it.
NFC-National Finance Commission Program
Constitution constitutes the NFC (National Finance Commission Award) program under Article 160 of the Pakistani Constitution. NFC program consists of a series of economic plans to control financial issues and imbalances and manage financial resources to meet four provinces’ needs.
Government of Pakistan Departments
A few departments include:
- National Museum of Pakistan
- Zoological Survey Department
- National Logistics Cell
- ZTBL (Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd)
- Pakistan’s National Library
- Workers Welfare Fund
- NID (National Intelligence Directorate)
- Wah Metallurgical Laboratory
- National Insurance Company
- Virtual University
- National Institute of Science & Technical Education
- USCP (Utility Stores Corporation of Pakistan)
- National Institute of Population Studies
- TCP (Trading Corporation of Pakistan)
- NIO (National Institute of Oceanography)
- TDAP (Trading Development Authority of Pakistan)
- NIH-National Institute of Health
- NIE-National Institute of Electronics
- SSGC-Sui Southern Gas Company
- National Industrial Relations Commission
- SNGPL-Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited
- ASF-Airports Security Force
- NPA-National Police Academy
- NSC-National Security Council
- National Textile University
- APP-Associated Press of Pakistan
- BOI-Board of Investment
- BEOE-Bureau of Emigration & Overseas Employment
- CCNS-Cabinet Committee on National Security
- CDA-Capital Development Authority
- Central Board of Film Sensors
- Overseas Pakistanis Foundation
- NTDC-National Transmission & Dispatch Company
- OGDCL-Oil & Gas Development Company Ltd
- PAL-Pakistan Academy of Letters
- Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority
- NAVTTC-National Vocational & Technical Training Commission
- PARCO-Pak Arab Refinery Company Ltd
- NDU-National Defense University
- DPP-Department of Plant Protection
- CCI-Council of Common Interests
- Estate Office
- Economic Coordination Committee
- Pakistan Coast Guards
- FDE-Federal Directorate of Education
- FFC-Federal Flood Commission
- PCB-Pakistan Cricket Board
- Financial Monitoring Unit
- PEC-Pakistan Engineering Council