Muharram is an Arabic word that means “Haraam” and is the first and one of the four sacred months of the Islamic calendar. After Ramadan, it is considered to be the second holiest month of the year when warfare is forbidden by The Almighty ALLAH. The 10th day of the month is called Ashura when the Shia – Muslims mourn the incident while Sunni – Muslims use to fast during Ashura.
Shia – Muslims mourn the incident of the family of Hazrat Ali (R.A) and honors their martyrdom through prayers and many other joyful events. Furthermore, they use to eat very little on the tenth day of Muharram while the older and children mourn the martyrdom of Hazrat Husain (R.A) by fasting till afternoon (Zawaal).
Moreover, Shia Muslims read a popular book written on Hazrat Ali (R.A) during these days, which is named Ziarat Ashura. This article contains all the information including Muharram History.
|Date:||As Per Lunar Calendar|
|Days in a Lunar Month:||Depends on the Lunar Cycle|
|Muharram 1437 A.H:||From 14 October 2015 to 12 November 2015|
|Muharram 1438 A.H:||From 2 October 2016 To 31 October 2016|
|Muharram 1439 A.H:||From 21 September 2017 To 20 October 2017|
|Muharram 1440 A.H:||From 11 September 2018 To 9 October 2018|
|Muharram 1441 A.H:||From 31 August 2019 To 29 September 2019|
|Muharram 1442 A.H:||From 20 August 2020 To 17 September 2020|
|Important Dates:||01, 02, 06, 07, 08, 09, 10,1 2, 15, 25, 27|
|Most Important Date:||10th of Muharram (A’shurah)|
|1st Muharram:||Allah answered the appeal of Prophet Zakariyya (a.s), Shia Muslims begin the Commemoration of Muharram which marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala.|
|2nd Muharram:||The arrival of Imam Hussain(a.s.) and his family and friends in Karbala, Martyrdom of Umar ibn al-Khattab (r.a), the 2nd Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate|
|3rd Muharam:||Start of the gathering of the army of Yazid, Prophet Yusuf (a.s) was rescued from the well in which his brothers dropped him|
|5th Muharam:||Prophet Musa (a.s) crossed the sea that split into two, Arrival of Habib ibn e Mazaher (r.a) to Karbala|
|7th Muharam:||Access to water was banned to Husain ibn Ali (a.s) by Yazid’s orders, Allah spoke to Prophet Musa (a.s) on Mount Sinai|
|8th Muharam:||Whatever water they would have stored was finished within a day and by the 8th there was no water left in the camp|
|9th Muharam:||Allah removed Prophet Yunus ( a.s) from the belly of the whale, Ibn Sa‘d advances against Imam al-Hussain (a.s), Struggle for water form Hussain (a.s) in Karbala, The Speech of Imam al-Hussain (a.s) on the Night of ‘Ashura’h, The Stand of the Hashimites, The Stand of His (a.s) Companions|
|10th Muharram:||Referred to as Ashura, Imam Hussain ibn Ali (a.s), was martyred,|
The month of Muharram has great significance for Muslims as it is one of the sacred months when warfare is prohibited. All of the Arabian tribes had strong governing rules and fought for minor issues but they also used to avoid warfare during these holy four months including Ramadan and Muharram.
The tenth day of Muharram is called Ashura which is very important for Muslims and Shia – Muslims believe that Hazrat Husain (R.A) was martyred on this day, in Karbala.
Battle of Karbala
The battle of Karbala was fought against Yazid. The Grandsons of The Prophet (PBUH), Hazrat Hassan, and Hazrat Husain (R.A) martyred by the forces of Yazid in Karbala when they were on a journey to Kufa. The battle continued for forty days and Muslims faced a lot of hurdles till their martyrdom. Seventy men including the companions of Hazrat Husain (R.A) were martyred in the incident of Karbala.
The month is very important for Sunni and Shia Muslims as Sunni- Muslims use to fast during these days. On the other hand, Shia – Muslims mourn the incident through prayers and many other events.
The year of Islamic calendar starts from the month of Muharram and ends on Dhu al-Hijjah, which is as follow:
- Rabi al Awwal
- Rabi al- Thaani
- Jumada al – Awwal
- Jumada al – Thaani
- Zul – Qaeda
- Zul – Hijjah
The sighting of the moon in the new Islamic year is known as Muharam. This month is mention by Almighty ALLAH in the Qur’an along other 3 sacred months of Rajab, Zul-Qaida, and Zul-Hajj. The warfare is prohibited during and after the arrival of Islam in Arabs as the leaders of Arabs also used to avoid wars during these four sacred months.
The tenth day of the month is considered to be the day of Ashura. Muslims mourn from the beginning of the month but the day of Ashura is considered to be most important for them as Hazrat Husain (R.A) along with his companions were refused from drinking water till the 10th day of Muharram, by the forces of Yazid.
On the Tenth day, Hazrat Husain (R.A) and his family were martyred and his followers were imprisoned and taken to Damascus. The day of Ashura is the day of mourn, speeches, and the men and women of Shia – Muslims weep and chant in order to mourn the martyrdom of Husain (R. A).
The incident of Karbala
When Yazid came into the power of the Umayyad Dynasty, he refused to take an oath of loyalty with Hazrat Husain (R. A). He pressurized them to be loyal and recognize him as their leader which Hazrat Husain (R. A) refused and migrated to Makkah. After going to Makkah, he along with his companions performed Hajj and intended to migrate the modern-day India or Iran.
However, they didn’t know that the forces of Yazid will refuse them to travel without showing loyalty to him. On a journey to modern-day Asian countries, they were surrounded by the followers of Yazid in Iraq and started the battle. The war continued for forty days. Hazrat Imam Husain had seventy companions and the forces of Yazid were in thousands.
Hazrat Imam Husain (R.A) and Hazrat Imam Hassan (R.A) were brutalized as they were refused from drinking water and martyred. His head was presented to the king after their martyrdom. The rest of the companions were imprisoned and sent to Damascus where they were forced to be loyal to Yazid. However, they refused and as a result, they were martyred by the army of Yazid.
There are many incidents that happened this month among which some are as follows.
- 1st Muharram 1979 – Attack of Grand Mosque
- 5th Muharram 1266 – Death Anniversary of a Sufi Saint, Baba Farid
- 15th Muharram 1879 – The birth of Mohammad Siraaj ud Din Naqshbandi
- 7th Muharram 680 AD– Yazid banned Hazrat Husain (R.A) to access water
- 3rd Muharram 680 AD – The entrance of Hazrat Husain (R.A) to Karbala
- 25th Muharram 714 AD – Maravanian martyred fourth Shia Imam, Zain –Ul- Abidin
- 10th Muharram – The day of Ashura, incident of Karbala, and the martyrdom of Hazrat Husain (R.A)
- 28th Muharram 1405 – Urs of Indian Sufi Saint, Ashraf Jehangir Semnani
- 8th Muharram 1782 – Rebellions of Muharram by the Muslims of Bangladesh
- 9th Muharram – Allah accepted Hazrat Yunus (A.S) prayer and get him out of the whale’s belly
The Holy Months
- Zul – Qaeda
- Zul – Hajj
- Sep 21, 2017 – Oct 20, 2017
- Sep 11, 2018 – Oct 9, 2018
- Aug 31, 2019 – Sep 29, 2019
- Aug 20, 2020, Sep 7, 2020
- Aug 9, 2021 – Sep 7, 2021
- July 30, 2022 – Aug 27, 2022