ConfinementHe appointed his nephews Ghias-ud-din and Muiz-ud-din to the government of Sunja in Ghor. When Ala-ud-din got news that his nephews were making encroachments on their neighborhood, he confined them in a fort of Joorjistan. Sultan Khusrau Shah, Bahram's son, fled to Hindustan and established his capital at Lahore. After the return of Ala-ud-din to Ghor, Khusrau tried to recover Ghazni but then he got news that the turks of Ghuzz were marching with a large army to subdue Ghazni. So he retired to Lahore where he died in 1160. Meanwhile the Ghuzz expelled the troops of Ghor and got possession of Ghazni. At Ghor, Ala-ud-din was succeeded by his son Mallik Saif-ud-din (1156-1157), who on his accession released his two cousins from their confinement in Joorjistan and again conferred on them the government of Sunja. Mallik Saif-ud-din was succeeded by his eldest cousin Ghias-ud-din Muhammad Bin Sam (1157-1203).
Rise to power of Shahab-ud-din Muhammad GhoriWhen Sultan Ghias-ud-din ascended the throne of Ghor, he made over to his brother Muiz-ud-din the government of the city of Takinabad, the largest town in Garmsir. Historians say that the brothers held a sort of joint rule. From Takinabad, Muiz-ud-din began to make continuous raids to Ghazni which was then under the control of the Ghuzz turks. Finally in 1173, when Ghias-ud-din conquered Ghazni, he appointed Muiz-ud-din his viceroy at Ghazni; and thus began the journey of Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghori also known as Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Bin Sam (1173-1206). Ghori officially succeeded his brother on his death in 1203.
The Strength of warring ForcesThough the exact number of forces is not known for all his invasions; according to historians, in the second battle of Tarain, the Rajput army consisted of 3,000 elephants, 3,00,000 cavalry and infantry, while Muhammad Ghori had 1,20,000 fully armoured men.
Invasion of MultanIn 1175 Ghori captured Multan from the Hamid Ludi dynasty which was also Pashtun but were alleged to be un-Islamic on the account of their association with Ismailite Shi'iate sect and also took Uch in 1175.
Battle of Gujarat or Kayadara 1178
Solanki dynastyGujarat was ruled by the young Raja Bhimdev II (ruled 1178-1241), a member of the Solanki dynasty (one of several Chalukya dynasties), although the age of the Raja meant that the army was commanded by his mother Naikidevi. Muhammad's army had suffered greatly during the march across the desert, and Naikidevi inflicted a major defeat on him at the village of Kayadra (near to Mount Abu, about forty miles to the north-east of Anhilwara). The invading army suffered heavy casualties during the battle, and also in the retreat back across the desert to Multan. Muhammad of Ghur never returned to Gujarat. An army led by Qutb al-din Aibek, his deputy in India, invaded in c.1195-97 and plundered the capital, but then returned to Delhi. Gujarat wasn't annexed by the Sultanate of Delhi until 1297.
Capture of Lahore 1181In 1181, Shahabuddin Ghori invaded the Ghaznavid Empire in India, reaching and capturing Lahore, thus ending the Ghaznavid Empire and bringing the remaining Ghaznavid territory under Ghorid control. This victory marked the beginning of the Ghorid Empire. He captured Lahore in 1181 and constructed the fortress of Sialkot. In 1191, he pushed further eastwards against the Hindu Rajput kingdoms, and his forces were defeated by the armies of Prithviraj Chauhan, the Hindu Rajput ruler of Delhi and Ajmer and his allies. A year later, in 1192, Ghori again fought the Hindu Rajputs, which resulted in victory.
Defeat in the First Battle of Tarain 1191
ConfrontationThe Rajput armies first defeated the two wings of the Muslim army. The Muslim army fledwhile Muhammad still remained in the center with the rest of the Turk soldiers. It was then Govind-raja and Muhammad of Ghor came face to face. The two were injured with repeated clashes. Muhammad could not recover from the blow and fainted from the shock. Fearing that their leader had died the army ran away.Mohammad was saved by one of his slaves.When he returned to Ghazni he vowed to avenge the defeat and started preparations immediately.
Victory in the Second Battle of Tarain 1192
VictoryMuhammad Ghori adopted a tactic and replied Prithwiraj with a letter indicating the acceptance of the truce. The Rajput army believed it and they started celebrating with their guards in a relaxed and casual mood. In the mean time Ghori’s army attacked Prithwiraj’s army in the very early hours of morning, as they were unprepared for the battle. However the Rajput army could raise a protection against Muslim army and they retreated. Muhammad’s army sent waves of mounted archers to attack the Rajput forces but had to set back as Prithwiraj’s elephant force advanced. At dusk Muhammad Ghori was able to achieve the victory as he charged the center of Rajput defense with a heavily armored horsemen and made them confused.
Most decisive battleAbout hundred thousand Rajput soldiers are said to have died in the battle. Prithwiraj was imprisoned and was taken to Ghazni. The second battle of Tarain is believed to be most decisive battle in the Indian History as it opened the path for conquerors of India. Muhammad and his successors were able to conquest over the Rajputs and established an Islamic Empire in India, the Sultanate of Delhi.
The Battle against Jai Chand Rathor in Kanuaj 1194 ADJai Chand Rathor, the king of Kanuaj was not in good terms with Prithavi Chauhan and was happy when he was captured and killed. But, in 1194 AD, when Muhammad Ghori invaded India again, this time he attacked Kannauj and defeated Jai Chand Rathor, in the battlefield of Chandawar. After this invasion, Qutab-ud-Din Aibak became the viceroy of Muhammad Ghori. After this, while Ghori returned back to the west to carry out his conquests in the western frontiers, Qutab-ud-din Aibak continued his conquests in India.
Conquests of Gujarat Bundelkhand Bengal and Bihar 1195-1202 ADQutab-ud-Din Aibak attacked Bhindev, king of Gujarat. He was defeated first but in the next battle he defeated Bhimdev and conquered Gujarat. His next target was Bundelkhand, ruled by the Chandel Rajputs. He defeated them also and conquered Bundelkhand. During this time, Muhammad Khilji, a slave of Muhammad Ghori attacked Bihar in 1197 and Bengal in 1202. Both Bengal and Bihar came under the control of Ghori, and Khilji became the viceroy of Bengal and Bihar.
Revolt of Khokhars1205 AD In 1205, Ghori again came to India, and this time the Khokhars stood against him. But he defeated them.
- In alliance with the Hindu Raja of Jammu Vijaya Dev, he attacked Lahore in 1187, which was held by his ancestral enemy, the descendent of Mahmud of Ghazni, and made him prisoner. Mahmud of Ghazni's line of Sultans and Governors became extinguished.
- Mahmud Ghazni had attacked Ghor and the King Amir Suri an ancestor of Shahabuddin Ghori died taking poison after being taken prisoner. Various sources including Ferishta and Siraj attests to the events.
- In the following year AH 401 (AD 1010), Mahmood led his army towards Ghoor
- According to Minhaj us Siraj, Amir Suri was captured by Mahmud of Ghazni, made prisoner along with his son and taken to Ghazni, where Amir Suri died.
- Soor, being made prisoner was brought to the king, but having taken poison, which he always kept under his ring, he died in a few hours; his country was annexed to the dominions of Ghizny.
- A little over a hundred years after Mahmud, one of his successors to the throne of Ghazni fell into a blood feud with the ruler of Ghor, southeast of Herat. In reprisal Ghazni was sacked by the prince of Ghor a fellow Muslim in 1150, and burned for seven days and nights. All the magnificent Mahmudi palaces and halls were destroyed and plunder, devastation and, and slaughter were continuous. It might be a historian reporting one of Mahmud's own murderous Indian raids.
- The Ghori victor earned the title of Jahansoze the world burner.
- The bells ring again : the perpetrations of the northern foreigners were not essentially anti Hindu. They could be quite merciless with Muslim rivals as well, for that was a part of their way of life. Ghazni now fell to a Turkman tribe which was in its turn ousted by the nephew of Jahansozein 1173. The later gave it to his brother later to be known as Muhammad of Ghori .
- Muhammad of Ghori launched expeditions into India, first capturing Multan from a fellow Muslim chief in 1175-76. Three years later he invaded Gujarat and was roundly defeated by the Hindu King.
- Another three years later, and Shahabuddin Ghori was back to take Peshawar and Sialkot in 1181. Now in alliance with the Hindu Raja of Jammu Vijaya Dev, he attacked Lahore in 1187, which was held by his ancestral enemy, the descendent of Mahmud of Ghazni, and made him prisoner. Mahmud of Ghazni's line of Sultans and Governors became extinguished.
Consolidation of the Ghorid Empire
Returned to GhaznaMuḥammad Ghorī returned west to Ghaznā to deal with the threat to his western frontiers from the unrest in Iran, but he appointed Aibak as his regional governor for northern India. His armies, mostly under Turkish generals, continued to advance through northern India, raiding as far east as Bengal. Aibak sacked Ayodhya in 1193, followed by his conquest of Delhi. In 1204, after becoming sultan, Shahabuddin Ghori defeated the advance ofMuḥammad II of Khwārezm. Aibak's protégé Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji had been appointed as a general by Muhammad of Ghor in 1203, and in 1204 he helped defeat the army of Lakshman Sen of the Sena Dynasty, but Shahabuddin Ghori failed to conquer Bengal. In 1206, a rebellion rose in Punjab. Muḥammad Ghorī returned to India and crushed the rebels, but was assassinated at Jhelum (where he was buried) on his way back to Ghaznā.
Attributes of Ghori described by historians
Ghori as a practical statesmanHistorians regards Ghori as a practical statesman who took the fullest advantage of the rotten political structure of India. Ghori gave proof of his statesmanship while dealing with different Rajput rulers. After his victory over Prithviraj, instead of annexing Delhi and Ajmer to his territories, he handed over the administration of Delhi and Ajmer to the relatives of Prithviraj. Ghori did not change the status of those Hindu chiefs who accepted his suzerainty and did not interfere in their administration. Of course, he established forts in these territories.
Political realism of Ghori
Great ability to select officersGhori had the art of selecting the best men for his services. He trained generals and administrators like Qutab-ud- din Aibak, who proved quite competent to maintain his empire.
Appointment of governorsGhori appointed governors of the provinces he conquered. These governors consolidated the position of Turks and they suppressed rebellions. After the death of Ghori, Qutub-ud-din Aibak, his most able military commander founded the Slave Dynasty that ruled India for about one hundred years.
Ghori as a conqueror of territoryIn the words of Dr. R.C. Majumdar, “Sultan Mahmud was undoubtedly one of the greatest military leaders, the world has ever seen. It is true that he never faced any defeat. It is, however, equally true that he never tried to consolidate his position. He came like “a wind and went back like a whirl wind.” Unlike Mahmud, Ghori was not a great general and had to suffer humiliating defeats several times. He was defeated by Mularaja II, the ruler of Gujarat; by Prithviraj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain and by Khwarizam Shah, the ruler of Persia. In fact, he was killed in his own camp by his Khokar enemies. But the greatness of Ghori was that none of these defeats could weaken his spirits or check his ambitions. He took his every failure as a valuable experience. He improved upon his weaknesses, removed them and ultimately got success. The conquests of Ghori brought about more permanent results than the conquests of Mahmud. Mahmud was contented to plunder the wealth of India and did not think of establishing his empire. Mahmud kept himself busy in invading and looting but Ghori attempted to build -up an empire which lasted for centuries.
BurialAs per his wishes, Ghauri was buried where he fell. His mouseleum was recently constructed by the Government of Pakistan. While driving from Rawalpindi to Jhelum on GT Road, just before Mandra, a road on the right leads towards Chakwal. On the left a narrow road connects several villages with GT Road. At the turning a small board guides to the tomb of Shahab-ud-Deen Ghauri.
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