Mongolian warrior and ruler Genghis Khan created the largest empire in the world, the Mongol Empire, by destroying individual tribes in Northeast Asia.Genghis Khan was born “Temujin” in Mongolia around 1162. He married at age 16, but had many wives during his lifetime. At 20, he began building a large army with the intent to destroy individual tribes in Northeast Asia and unite them under his rule. He was successful; the Mongol Empire was the largest empire in the world before the British Empire, and lasted well after his own death in 1227.
|In Urdu:||چنگیز خان|
|Alternate name:||Genghis Khan|
|Famous As:||Chingaiz Khan|
|Place:||Delüün Boldog, near the mountain Burkhan Khaldun and the rivers Onon and Kherlen in modern-day northern Mongolia, close to the current capital Ulaanbaatar|
|Spouse:||Börte ,Üjin Khatun Yisui, Kunju Khatun, Khulan Khatun, Yesugen Khatun, Yesulun Khatun, Isukhan Khatun, Gunju Khatun, Abika Khatun ,Gurbasu Khatun, Chaga Khatun, Moge Khatun|
|Children:||Jochi, Chagatai, Ögedei, Tolui, others|
|Date:||18 August 1227|
|Reign:||Spring 1206 – August 18, 1227|
|Coronation:||Spring 1206 in a kurultai at the Onon River, Mongolia|
Genghis Khan’s Early Life
Records of the Great Khan’s early life are sparse and contradictory. He was likely born in 1162, though some sources give it as 1155 or 1165. We know that the boy was given the name Temujin. His father Yesukhei was the chief of the minor Borijin clan of nomadic Mongols, who lived by hunting rather than herding. Yesukhei had kidnapped Temujin’s young mother, Hoelun, as she and her first husband rode home from their wedding. She became Yesukhei’s second wife; Temujin was his second son by just a few months. Mongol legend says that the baby was born with a blood-clot in his fist, a sign that he would be a great warrior.
Hardship and Captivity
When Temujin was nine, his father took him to a neighboring tribe to work for several years and earn a bride. His intended was a slightly older girl named Borje. On the way home, Yesukhei was poisoned by rivals, and died. Temujin returned to his mother, but the clan expelled Yesukhei’s two widows and seven children, leaving them to die. The family scraped a living by eating roots, rodents, and fish. Young Temujin and his full brother Khasar grew to resent their eldest half-brother, Begter. They killed him; as punishment for the crime, Temujin was seized as a slave. His captivity may have lasted more than five years.
Temujin as a Young Man
Free at sixteen, Temujin went to find Borje again. She was still waiting, and they soon married. The couple used her dowry, a fine sable-fur coat, to make an alliance with Ong Khan of the powerful Kereyid clan. Ong Khan accepted Temujin as a foster-son. This alliance proved key, as Hoelun’s Merkid clan decided to avenge her long-ago kidnapping by stealing Borje. With the Kereyid army, Temujin raided the Merkids, looting their camp and reclaiming Borje. Temujin also had help in the raid from his childhood blood-brother (“anda”), Jamuka, who would later become a rival. Borje’s first son, Jochi, was born nine months later.
Wives and children
As previously arranged by his father, Temüjin married Börte of the Onggirat tribe when he was around 16 in order to cement alliances between their two tribes. Soon after the marriage, Börte was kidnapped by the Merkits and reportedly given away as a wife. Temüjin rescued her with the help of his friend and future rival, Jamukha, and his protector, Toghrul of the Keraite tribe. She gave birth to a son, Jochi (1185–1226), nine months later, clouding the issue of his parentage. Despite speculation over Jochi, Börte would be Temüjin’s only empress, though he did follow tradition by taking several morganatic wives. Börte had three more sons, Chagatai (1187–1241), Ögedei (1189–1241), and Tolui (1190–1232). Genghis later took about 500 secondary wives and “consorts”, but Börte continued to be his life companion. He had many other children with those other wives, but they were excluded from succession, only Börte’s sons being considered to be his heirs. However, a Tatar woman named Yisui, taken as a wife when her people were conquered by the Mongols, eventually came to be given almost as much prominence as Börte, despite originally being only one of his minor wives. The names of at least six daughters are known, and while they played significant roles behind the scenes during his lifetime, no documents have survived that definitively provide the number or names of daughters born to the consorts of Genghis Khan.
Temujin to Chinggis Khan
When Temujin was about 20, he was captured in a raid by former family allies, the Taichi’uts, and temporarily enslaved. He escaped with the help of a sympathetic captor, and joined his brothers and several other clansmen to form a fighting unit. Temujin began his slow ascent to power by building a large army of more than 20,000 men. He set out to destroy traditional divisions among the various tribes and unite the Mongols under his rule.
Khans brilliant military tactics
Through a combination of outstanding military tactics and merciless brutality, Temujin avenged his father’s murder by decimating the Tatar army, and ordered the killing of every Tatar male who was more than approximately 3 feet tall (taller than the linchpin, or axle pin, of a wagon wheel). Temujin’s Mongols then defeated the Taichi’ut using a series of massive cavalry attacks, including having all of the Taichi’ut chiefs boiled alive. By 1206, Temujin had also defeated the powerful Naiman tribe, thus giving him control of central and eastern Mongolia.
Early Success of Mongol army
The early success of the Mongol army owed much to the brilliant military tactics of Genghis Khan, as well as his understanding of his enemies’ motivations. He employed an extensive spy network and was quick to adopt new technologies from his enemies. The well-trained Mongol army of 80,000 fighters coordinated their advance with a sophisticated signaling system of smoke and burning torches. Large drums sounded commands to charge, and further orders were conveyed with flag signals. Every soldier was fully equipped with a bow, arrows, a shield, a dagger and a lasso. He also carried large saddlebags for food, tools and spare clothes. The saddlebag was waterproof and could be inflated to serve as a life preserver when crossing deep and swift-moving rivers. Cavalrymen carried a small sword, javelins, body armor, a battle-ax or mace, and a lance with a hook to pull enemies off of their horses. The Mongols were devastating in their attacks. Because they could maneuver a galloping horse using only their legs, their hands were free to shoot arrows. The entire army was followed by a well-organized supply system of oxcarts carrying food for soldiers and beasts alike, as well as military equipment, shamans for spiritual and medical aid, and officials to catalog the booty.
Following the victories over the rival Mongol tribes, other tribal leaders agreed to peace and bestowed on Temujin the title of “Genghis Khan,” which means “universal ruler.” The title carried not only political importance, but also spiritual significance. The leading shaman declared Genghis Khan the representative of Mongke Koko Tengri (the “Eternal Blue Sky”), the supreme god of the Mongols. With this declaration of divine status, it was accepted that his destiny was to rule the world. Religious tolerance was practiced in the Mongol Empire, but to defy the Great Khan was equal to defying the will of God. It was with such religious fervor that Genghis Khan is supposed to have said to one of his enemies, “I am the flail of God. If you had not committed great sins, God would not have sent a punishment like me upon you.”
Establishment of Empire
Having united the steppe tribes, Genghis Khan ruled over some 1 million people. In order to suppress the traditional causes of tribal warfare, he abolished inherited aristocratic titles. He also forbade the selling and kidnapping of women, banned the enslavement of any Mongol and made livestock theft punishable by death. Moreover, Genghis Khan ordered the adoption of a writing system, conducted a regular census, granted diplomatic immunity to foreign ambassadors and allowed freedom of religion well before that idea caught on elsewhere.
Genghis Khan’s first campaign outside of Mongolia took place against the Xi Xia kingdom of northwestern China. After a series of raids, the Mongols launched a major initiative in 1209 that brought them to the doorstep of Yinchuan, the Xi Xia capital. Unlike other armies, the Mongols traveled with no supply train other than a large reserve of horses. The army consisted almost entirely of cavalrymen, who were expert riders and deadly with a bow and arrows. At Yinchuan, the Mongols deployed a false withdrawal—one of their signature tactics—and then initiated a siege. Though their attempt to flood the city failed, the Xi Xia ruler submitted and presented tribute.
Attack on Jin dynasty
The Mongols next attacked the Jin Dynasty of northern China, whose ruler had made the mistake of demanding Genghis Khan’s submission. From 1211 to 1214, the outnumbered Mongols ravaged the countryside and sent refugees pouring into the cities. Food shortages became a problem, and the Jin army ended up killing tens of thousands of its own peasants. In 1214 the Mongols besieged the capital of Zhongdu (now Beijing), and the Jin ruler agreed to hand over large amounts of silk, silver, gold and horses. When the Jin ruler subsequently moved his court south to the city of Kaifeng, Genghis Khan took this as a breach of their agreement and, with the help of Jin deserters, sacked Zhongdu to the ground.
War against Khwarzem empire
In 1219 Genghis Khan went to war against the Khwarezm Empire in present-day Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Iran. The sultan there had agreed to a trade treaty, but when the first caravan arrived its goods were stolen and its merchants were killed. The sultan then murdered some of Genghis Khan’s ambassadors. Despite once again being outnumbered, the Mongol horde swept through one Khwarezm city after another, including Bukhara, Samarkand and Urgench. Skilled workers such as carpenters and jewelers were usually saved, while aristocrats and resisting soldiers were killed. Unskilled workers, meanwhile, were often used as human shields during the next assault. No one knows with any certainty how many people died during Genghis Khan’s wars, in part because the Mongols propagated their vicious image as a way of spreading terror.
Genghis Khans personality
It is not entirely clear what Genghis Khan’s personality was truly like, but his personality and character were doubtlessly molded by the many hardships he faced when he was young, and in unifying the Mongol nation. Genghis appeared to fully embrace the Mongol people’s nomadic way of life, and did not try to change their customs or beliefs. As he aged, he seemed to become increasingly aware of the consequences of numerous victories and expansion of the Mongol Empire, including the possibility that succeeding generations might choose to live a sedentary lifestyle. According to quotations attributed to him in his later years, he urged future leaders to follow the Yasa, and to refrain from surrounding themselves with wealth and pleasure. He was known to share his wealth with his people and awarded subjects who participated in campaigns handsomely.
Honesty and loyalty
He seemed to highly value honesty and loyalty from his subjects. Genghis put trust in his generals, such as Muqali, Jebe and Subudei, and gave them free rein in battles. He allowed them to make decisions on their own when they embarked on campaigns very far from the Mongol Empire capital Karakorum (now Pakistan). An example of Genghis Khan’s perception of loyalty is written, in The Secret History of the Mongols, that one of his main military generals, Jebe, had been his enemy. When Jebe was captured, he agreed to fight for Genghis if he spared his life or would die if that was what he wished. The man who became known as Genghis spared Jebe’s life and made him part of his team.
Accounts of his life are marked by a series of betrayals and conspiracies. These include rifts with his early allies such as Jamuka and Wang Khan and problems with the most important shaman. At the end of his life, he reportedly was considering an attack against his son Jochi. There is little reason to believe all of these were genuine. This may suggest a degree of paranoia in Genghis Khan’s personality based on his earlier experiences.
Toward the later part of his life, Genghis became interested in the ancient Buddhist and Daoist religions. The Daoist monk Ch’ang Ch’un, who rejected invitations from Sung and Jin leaders, traveled more than five thousand kilometers to meet Genghis close to the Afghanistan border. The first question Genghis asked him was if the monk had some secret medicine that could make him immortal. The monk’s negative answer disheartened Genghis, and he rapidly lost interest in the monk. He also passed a decree exempting all followers of Daoist religion from paying any taxes. This made the Daoists very powerful at the expense of Buddhists. Genghis was, by and large, tolerant of the multiple religions he encountered during the conquests as long as the people were obedient. However, all of his campaigns caused wanton and deliberate destruction of places of worship. Religious groups were persecuted only if they resisted or opposed his empire.
Politics and economics
The Mongol Empire was governed by a civilian and military code, called the Yassa code, created by Genghis. Some consider this unified code one of Genghis’ most significant achievements, since it meant that the vast territory under his rule was united by a single legal system. The code was not egalitarian, as it protected aristocratic privilege. It laid down duties for the vassals and for the princes. One interesting feature is that it protected a postal service—it was a crime to injure a courier. This system was necessary for the running of the empire. The code, however, did not long survive the break up of the empire into independent units, when codes based on the dominant religion of each area, such as Islam and Buddhism were adopted.
Among nomads, the Mongol Empire did not emphasize the importance of ethnicity and race in the administrative realm, instead adopting an approach grounded in meritocracy. The exception was the role of Genghis and his family. Genghis wrote into the Yasa that only a member of his family, the Golden Family, could exercise the highest authority. The Mongol Empire was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse empires in history, as befitted its size. Many of the empire’s nomadic inhabitants considered themselves Mongols in military and civilian life. There were, to some degree, ideals such as meritocracy among the Mongols and allied nomadic people in military and civilian life. However sedentary peoples, and especially the Chinese, remained heavily discriminated against. There were tax exemptions for religious figures and so to some extent teachers and doctors.
The Mongol Empire practiced religious tolerance to a large degree because it was generally indifferent to belief. The exception was when religious groups challenged the state. For example Ismaili Muslims that resisted the Mongols were exterminated.
The Mongol Empire linked together the previously fractured Silk Road states under one system and became somewhat open to trade and cultural exchange. However, the Mongol conquests did lead to a collapse of many of the ancient trading cities of Central Asia that resisted invasion. Taxes were also heavy and conquered people were used as forced labor in those regions.
Creation of Civil state
Modern Mongolian historians say that towards the end of his life, Genghis attempted to create a civil state under the Great Yassa that would have established the legal equality of all individuals, including women. However, there is no contemporary evidence of this, or of the lifting of discriminatory policies towards sedentary peoples such as the Chinese, or any improvement in the status of women. Modern scholars refer to a theoretical policy of encouraging trade and communication as the concept of Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace).
Genghis realized that he needed people who could govern cities and states which he had conquered. He also realized that such administrators could not be found among his Mongol people because they were nomads and thus had no experience governing cities. For this purpose Genghis Khan invited a Khitan prince, Chu’Tsai, who worked for the Jin and had been captured by the Mongol army after the Jin Dynasty was defeated. Jin had captured power by displacing Khitan. Genghis told Chu’Tsai, who was a lineal descendant of Khitan rulers, that he had avenged Chu’Tsai’s forefathers. Chu’Tsai responded that his father served the Jin Dynasty honestly and so did he; he did not consider his own father his enemy, so the question of revenge did not apply. Genghis Khan was very impressed by this reply. Chu’Tsai administered parts of the Mongol Empire and became a confidant of the successive Mongol Khans.
Genghis made advances in military disciplines, such as mobility, psychological warfare, intelligence, military autonomy, and tactics. Genghis and others are widely cited as producing a highly efficient army with remarkable discipline, organization, toughness, dedication, loyalty, and military intelligence, in comparison to their enemies. The Mongol armies were one of the most feared forces ever to take the field of battle. Operating in massive sweeps extending over dozens of miles, the Mongol army combined shock, mobility, and firepower unmatched in land warfare until the modern age. Other peoples such as the Romans had stronger infantry, and others like the Byzantines deployed more heavily armored cavalry. Still others were experts in fortification. But none combined combat power on land with such devastating range, speed, scope, and effectiveness as the Mongol military. In contrast to most of their enemies, almost all Mongols were nomads and grew up on horses.
- Genghis refused to divide his troops into different ethnic units, instead creating a sense of unity. He punished severely even small infractions against discipline. He also divided his armies into a number of smaller groups based on the decimal system in units of tens, taking advantage of the superb mobility of his mounted archers to attack their enemies on several fronts simultaneously. The soldiers took their families along with them on a military campaign.
- These units of tens were like a family or close-knit group with a leader, and every unit of 10 had a leader who reported up to the next level of the 100s (10 leaders of 10s), 1,000s (10 leaders of 100s), 1,000s (10 leaders of 1,000s) or 1 tumen. The leader of the 100,000 (10 leaders of 10,000s) soldiers was the Khagan himself. Strict discipline and command under Genghis and others made the Mongol military highly efficient and better relying on scope of operation or space and the tactics, speed, and strategies that came out of it.
- Genghis Khan expected unwavering loyalty from his generals and gave them free rein in battles and wars. Muqali, a trusted general, was given command of the Mongol forces over the Jin Dynasty while Genghis was fighting in Central Asia, and Subutai and Jebe were allowed to use any means to defeat Kievan Rus. The Mongol military also was successful in siege warfare—cutting off resources for cities and towns by diverting rivers, causing inhabitants to become refugees—psychological warfare, and adopting new ideas, techniques, and tools from the people they conquered.
- Another important aspect of the military organization of Genghis was the communications and supply route, or Yam, borrowed from previous Chinese models. Genghis dedicated special attention to this in order to speed up the gathering of military intelligence and support travelers.
- In military strategy, Genghis generally preferred to offer opponents the chance to submit to his rule without a fight and become vassals by sending tribute, accepting residents, or contributing troops. He guaranteed them protection only if they abided by the rules under his administration and domain, but his and others’ policy was mass destruction and murder if he encountered any resistance.
Division of the empire into khanates
Before his death, Genghis divided his empire among his sons and grandsons into several khanates designed as sub-territories: Their khans were expected to follow the Great Khan, who was initially Genghis’ son, Ögedei Khan. Following are the khanates in the way in which Genghis assigned after his death:
- Yuan Dynasty, Empire of the Great Khan, or Yuan Dynasty-third son but designated main heir Ögedei Khan, as Great Khan, took most of Eastern Asia, including China.
- Il-Khanate—Hulegu Khan, son of Tolui and brother of Kublai Khan, established himself in the former Khwarezmid Empire as the Khan of the Il-Khanate.
- Mongol homeland (present day Mongolia, including Karakorum)—Tolui Khan, being the youngest son, received a small territory near the Mongol homeland, following Mongol custom.
- Chagatai Khan—Chagatai Khan, Genghis’ second son, was given Central Asia and northern Iran
- Blue Horde and White Horde (combined into the Golden Horde)—Genghis Khan’s eldest son, Jochi, had received most of the distant Russia and Ruthenia. Because Jochi died before Genghis, his territory was further split up into the Western White Horde (under Orda Khan) and the Eastern Blue Horde, which under Genghis Khan’s grandson Batu Khan, attacked Europe and crushed several armies before being summoned back by the news of Ögedei’s death. In 1382, these two khanates were combined by Tokhtamysh into the Kipchak Khanate, better known as the Golden Horde.
No one knows how he died or where he is buried. Of all the enigmas surrounding the Khan’s life, perhaps the most famous concerns how it ended. The traditional narrative says he died in 1227 from injuries sustained in a fall from a horse, but other sources list everything from malaria to an arrow wound in the knee. One of the more questionable accounts even claims he was murdered while trying to force himself on a Chinese princess. However he died, the Khan took great pains to keep his final resting place a secret. According to legend, his funeral procession slaughtered everyone they came in contact with during their journey and then repeatedly rode horses over his grave to help conceal it. The tomb is most likely on or around a Mongolian mountain called Burkhan Khaldun, but to this day its precise location is unknown.
Amazing facts about Chinggis Khan
He was responsible for the deaths of as many as 40 million people.
While it’s impossible to know for sure how many people perished during the Mongol conquests, many historians put the number at somewhere around 40 million. Censuses from the Middle Ages show that the population of China plummeted by tens of millions during the Khan’s lifetime, and scholars estimate that he may have killed a full three-fourths of modern-day Iran’s population during his war with the Khwarezmid Empire. All told, the Mongols’ attacks may have reduced the entire world population by as much as 11 percent.
He was tolerant of different religions.
Unlike many empire builders, Genghis Khan embraced the diversity of his newly conquered territories. He passed laws declaring religious freedom for all and even granted tax exemptions to places of worship. This tolerance had a political side—the Khan knew that happy subjects were less likely to rebel—but the Mongols also had an exceptionally liberal attitude towards religion. While Genghis and many others subscribed to a shamanistic belief system that revered the spirits of the sky, winds and mountains, the Steppe peoples were a diverse bunch that included Nestorian Christians, Buddhists, Muslims and other animistic traditions. The Great Khan also had a personal interest in spirituality. He was known to pray in his tent for multiple days before important campaigns, and he often met with different religious leaders to discuss the details of their faiths. In his old age, he even summoned the Taoist leader Qiu Chuji to his camp, and the pair supposedly had long conversations on immortality and philosophy.
He created one of the first international postal systems.
Along with the bow and the horse, the Mongols most potent weapon may have been their vast communication network. One of his earliest decrees as Khan involved the formation of a mounted courier service known as the “Yam.” This medieval express consisted of a well-organized series of post houses and way stations strung out across the whole of the Empire. By stopping to rest or take on a fresh mount every few miles, official riders could often travel as far as 200 miles a day. The system allowed goods and information to travel with unprecedented speed, but it also acted as the eyes and ears of the Khan. Thanks to the Yam, he could easily keep abreast of military and political developments and maintain contact with his extensive network of spies and scouts. The Yam also helped protect foreign dignitaries and merchants during their travels. In later years, the service was famously used by the likes of Marco Polo and John of Plano Carpini.
The Soviets tried to snuff out his memory in Mongolia.
Genghis Khan is now seen as a national hero and founding father of Mongolia, but during the era of Soviet rule in the 20th century, the mere mention of his name was banned. Hoping to stamp out all traces of Mongolian nationalism, the Soviets tried to suppress the Khan’s memory by removing his story from school textbooks and forbidding people from making pilgrimages to his birthplace in Khentii. Genghis Khan was eventually restored to Mongolian history after the country won independence in the early 1990s, and he’s since become a recurring motif in art and popular culture. The Great Khan lends his name to the nation’s main airport in the city of Ulan Bator, and his portrait even appears on Mongolian currency.
Some of his most trusted generals were former enemies.
The Great Khan had a keen eye for talent, and he usually promoted his officers on skill and experience rather than class, ancestry or even past allegiances. One famous example of this belief in meritocracy came during a 1201 battle against the rival Taijut tribe, when Genghis was nearly killed after his horse was shot out from under him with an arrow. When he later addressed the Taijut prisoners and demanded to know who was responsible, one soldier bravely stood up and admitted to being the shooter. Stirred by the archer’s boldness, Genghis made him an officer in his army and later nicknamed him “Jebe,” or “arrow,” in honor of their first meeting on the battlefield. Along with the famed general Subutai, Jebe would go on to become one of the Mongols’ greatest field commanders during their conquests in Asia and Europe.
1230-War against the Jin Dynasty begins.
The Great Khan Ogedei personally leads his army against the Jin Dynasty in China. His general, Subutai, captures the Emperor Wanyan’s capital city, Kaifeng. Three Mongol armies form an alliance with the Song Dynasty and finish off the Jin. After the defeat of the Jin Dynasty, Ogdei orders the construction of the Tumen Amgalan Ord, the “Palace of Myriad Peace,” and he turns the city Karakorum(now Pakistan)into the Mongol capital. From this point, Ogedai’s forces continue to push into China, Russia, and Eastern Europe.
Ogedei dies, which forces Batu Khan, Genghis Khan’s grandson and leader of the Golden Horde, to withdraw his invasion of Europe, which had reached the Holy Roman Empire. Batu Khan is forced to return for the kurultai to select Ogedei’s successor but he refuses, sparking a four-year stalemate.
1246-Guyuk is elected Great Khan.
Due to a threat from Genghis Khan’s youngest brother, Temuge, Batu finally allies with Guyuk and allows his forces to attend the kurultai, which elects Guyuk as the next Great Khan. He refutes his mother’s policies and punishes her supporters. He continues campaigns to expand into Song China, Iraq, and the Korean Peninsula.
1248- Mongke Khan succeeds as ruler.
In 1248, Guyuk gathers troops to march westwards from Karakorum(now Pakistan), but he dies before battle begins. His rival Batu calls a kurultai in his own territory, which his rivals refuse to attend, and he nominates Mongke, a grandson of Genghis Khan. This causes a division in the empire between the descendants of Ogedei on one side and Mongke and the descendants of Genghis’s other son, Tolui. Mongke comes to power and institutes a bloody purge of the Ogedei line.
1258- Baghdad is captured.
Under the leadership of Hulagu Khan, Baghdad is besieged and captured in 1258. This represents the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate and opens the way for further conquest into the Middle East.
August 11 1259-Mongke Khan dies.
Mongke Khan, leading an army to complete the invasion of China, is forced to stay through the hot summer due to the protracted campaign. Disease spreads among the army, and Mongke catches it and dies. The Mongol forces are again forced to withdraw from their wars of conquest to return for a new kurultai to decide on the succession, which weakens their tactical positions. In the Middle East, the Christians and Muslim Mamluks ally and end the Mongol’s invasion. This sets off a civil war between Ariqboqe Khan and Kublai Khan for the right to succession.
August 21 1264-Kublai Khan becomes the Great Khan.
After a protracted civil war, Ariqboqe surrenders to Kublai Khan at Shangdu. This solidifies Kublai Khan’s power and allows him to once again begin campaigns of conquest. He finally defeats the Song Dynasty in southern China and puts his own regime in place, called the Yuan, which makes the Mongols the first non-Chinese people to conquer all of China.
1368-The Ming Dynasty reclaims China and the Mongol Empire ends.
After Kublai Khan, the Mongols disintegrate into competing entities and lose influence, in part due to the outbreak of the Black Death. In 1368, the Ming Dynasty overthrows the Yuan, the Mongols’ ruling power, thus signifying the end of the empire.