Sugarcane (Food)

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Article Upload Date: Fri 14 Apr 2017
2017-04-14 04:34:05Sugarcane
Sugarcane is an important cash crop of Pakistan. It is mainly grown for sugar and sugary production. [1] Sugarcane is an important cash crop - of Pakistan  It is an important source of income and employment for the farming community of the country. It also forms essential item for industries like sugar, chip board, paper, barrages, confectionery, uses in chemicals, plastics, paints, synthetics, fiber, insecticides and detergents. Sugarcane production in the country has increased over time. In 1988, the area under sugarcane was 878 x 103 hectares which increased to 886 x 103 hectares in 1992 and sugarcane production increased for 36976 x 103 tons in 1988 to 38059 x 103 tons in 1992. Despite expansion in production over years, increase in the productivity per unit of area has been very low in Pakistan.  The average sugarcane production in the country required static between 45-50 tons/ha, which is very much low compared to the cane production by other countries.[2] It also forms essential item for industries - like sugar 
  • Details
  • Alternative names:

    Sugar cane

  • Type:

    Plant

  • Genus:

    Saccharum

  • Tribe:

    Andropogoneae

  • Species :

    Perennial true grasses

  • Course:

    Sugar sucrose

  • Place of origin:

    South Asia , Paskistan

  • Family:

    Poaceae

  • Region / State:

    Paskistan

  • Climates :

    Hot dry environment near sea level to cool and moist environment at higher elevations

  • Sugarcane Produces:

    Alcohol used by pharmaceutical industry, ethanol used as a fuel, bagasse used for paper, and chip board manufacturing

  • Growing areas in Pakistan:

    24° N latitude in Sindh to 34° N latitude in N.W.F.P to northern Punjab

About

Sugarcane
Sugarcane

Introduction

Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane is an important industrial and cash crop in Pakistan and in many countries of the world. It is grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world in a range of climates from hot dry environment near sea level to cool and moist environment at higher elevations. Besides sugar production, sugarcane produces numerous valuable byproducts like, alcohol used by pharmaceutical industry, ethanol used as a fuel, bagasse used for paper, and chip board manufacturing and press mud used as a rich source of organic matter and nutrients for crop production.[3] important industrial and cash crop - in Pakistan 

Production In Pakistan

Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Pakistan occupies an important position in cane producing countries of the world. It ranks at the fifth position in cane acreage and production and almost 15th position in sugar production. A comparison of cane yield and sugar recovery in some cane growing countries is given in the table below.[4] Important position in cane producing - countries In order to increase the production of sugar cane several steps were taken by the Govt. and the sugar mill association to help formers. In past several reports/research work to increase the production were published on different process which include chemical composition as well as agricultural reforms/steps to increase the recovery and %age yield. Here in this report information is published which can guide local farmers to evaluate their cultivation system and improve it as per requirements.[5] Increase the production of sugar cane - several steps 

Areas

Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane growing areas in Pakistan fall between 24° N latitude in Sindh to 34° N latitude in N.W.F.P. These areas can be broadly divided in to [6] Sugarcane growing areas in Pakistan - fall between
  • Sub-tropical, irrigated with moderate temperature frost free zone between 26° N latitude to 30° N latitude
  • Irrigated arid sub-tropical zone between 240 N latitude to 260 N latitude, iii) and temperate zone of northern Punjab and N.W.F.P. between 320 N latitude to 340 N latitude
Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane is grown on an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan. The Punjab shares 62 %, Sindh 26 % and N.W.F.P. shares 16 % of the total area. The national average cane yield (~ 47 t ha-1) is far below the existing potential (Table 2). In respect of cane yield Sindh with 53 t ha-1 is the leading province followed by N.W.F.P. (45 t ha-1) and Punjab (40 t ha-1).[7] Sugarcane production trends - in Pakistan

Agricultural Factors

Sugarcane
Sugarcane
  • Improper selection of land
  • Improper preparation of land
  • Conventional planting methods
  • Late planting
  • Moisture stress at critical stages of crop growth
  • Poor management of ratoon crop
  • Early and late harvesting

Method of Planting

Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane should be planted at a row spacing of 90 cm to 1 m. Two budded double sets should be placed end to end in the furrows covered with 2 to 3 cm soil layer. About 3.2 to 4 tonnes seed (80 to 100 maunds) of thin cane varieties and 4 to 5 tonnes seed (100 to 120 maunds) of thick varieties is sufficient to plant one acre.[8] Two budded double sets should -   be placed Research has shown good yield increases in tonnage and sugar per acre when the planted row was widened from the V-furrow to the 15- to 18-inch furrow. It showed further yield increases as the furrow width was increased from 15 to 18 to 24 inches. Based on this research and the problems encountered by growers in handling furrow widths of more than 18 inches, it is suggested that growers use a 15- to 18-inch furrow for planting in 2001. Growers who can successfully handle the 24-inch width furrow are encouraged to do so. It is also suggested that the furrow opener be constructed to leave a wide bottom with a slight indentation on each side of the furrow and a slight ridge of loose soil in the middle of the furrow bottom. This opening configuration can be obtained by attaching a single disk on each side of the row opener to dig out the furrow sides and deposit the soil in the furrow middle. Some growers have found that packing rows ahead of opening will give more uniform furrows when opening with a three-row opener.[9] Method of Planting Sugacane  -   in Pakistan


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