Shaheen Falcon (Others)

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2017-04-07 05:24:15Shaheen Falcon
    
The shaheen falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinator) is a non-migratory subspecies of the peregrine falcon found mainly in the Indian subcontinent [1] Indian subcontinet It has also been described as a migratory subspecies [2] Subspecies Other common names for the subspecies include the Indian peregrine falcon [3] Peregrine falcone black shaheen falcon,black shaheen, Indian shaheen, or the Pakistani shaheen,and the word shaheen in these names may also be spelled as shahin.
It is a non-migratory[4] Migration wikipedia subspecies of the peregrine falcon  found mainly in hilly and mountainous regions of the Indian subcontinent [5] Indian subcontinent and the nearby island of Sri Lanka [6] Sirilanka wikipedia In Pakistani literature, the shaheen has a special association with the poetry of the country's national poet, Allama Muhammad Iqbal[7] Allama Muhammad Iqbal . The Pakistan Air Force [8] Pakistan Air force has as a symbol and in Gilgit-Baltistan it is the unofficial bird of the region.
These falcons are formidable hunters that prey on other birds (and bats) in mid-flight. Peregrines hunt from above and, after sighting their prey, drop into a steep, swift dive that can top 200 miles an hour (320 kilometers an hour).[9] Falcon animal.nationalgeographic.com.Falcons are swift powerful fliers that dive at their prey catching it in mid-air. Falcons are birds of prey and are known for their hunging skills and ruthlessness. They hunt their prey from the skies, once they have spotted their prey they swoop down and catch it.Falcons have long wings and powerful beaks. When fully grown falcons fly at very high speeds and rapidly change directions because their wings are pointed and thin.They are related to hawks and eagles. They can be found worldwide and are found on every continent except Antarctica. This makes it the most widespread raptor and one of the most widely found bird species.
Falcons range in size from the falconets at 6 inches (15 cm) long to the Arctic gyrfalcon at 24 inches (60 cm). Some small falcons with long narrow wings are called hobbies, and some which hover while hunting are called kestrels. The falcons are part of the family Falconidae.There are 37 species of falcon. Six types of falcons that are found in North America: American Kestrel, Merlin, Aplomado Falcon, Prairie Falcon, Peregrine Falcon, and Gyrfalcon.[10] Falcons atozekidstuff.com
  • Details
  • Location:

    Pakistan

  • Symbol of :

    Pakistan Air Force

  • Territorial bird of:

    Gilgit-Baltistan

  • Subspecies:

    Falco peregrinus peregrinator

  • Species:

    F. peregrinus

  • Genus:

    Falco

  • Family:

    Falconidae

  • Order:

    Falconiformes

  • Class: :

    Aves

  • Phylum:

    Chordata

  • Kingdom:

    Animalia

  • Conservation status :

    Conservation status Vulnerable

  • Non-migratory subspecies of the:

    Peregrine falcon

  • Name:

    Black Shaheen,Indian peregrine falcon,Pakistani shaheen

  • Synonyms:

    Falco atriceps ,Falco shaheen

  • Falco peregrinus peregrinator :

    Sundevall, 183

  • Region:

    Unofficial Bird

  • Shaheen falcon:

    Small and Powerful falcon with blackish upperparts, rufous under parts with fine, dark streaks and white on the throat

  • Reprodutive Season:

    December to April

  • Hunts:

    Small and Medium-sized birds such as pigeons, parrots and smaller mammals

  • Length of the bird:

    Ranging from 380 to 440 mm

  • Average life span in the wild:

    Up to 17 years

  • Type:

    Bird

  • Habitat:

    Mountain and foothhills in peninsular india including the westren ghats.In himalayas upto to 240m also near coasts.

  • Related :

    Hawks and Eagles

  • Species of falcon:

    37

Nesting of Shaheen Falcon Falco peregrinus peregrinator in Nilgiris Tamil Nadu Southern India

Shaheen Falcon
Shaheen Falcon
The Nilgiris is located at the tri-junction of three states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka in the Southern Western Ghats. It covers an area of 2,452.50 km2. Most of the areas of Nilgiris are hilly region at an elevation of 2000 to 2600m asl. These mountains have a sizable number of endemic and endangered faunal species especially rich in avian diversity (Vijayan et al., 2000). There is very little information is available on raptor species in this region (Thrumurthi and Balaji, 1999). Previous studies are revealed that about 40 numbers of raptors were recorded in the Upper Nilgiri regions (Zarri and Rahmani, 2005).The Shaheen Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinator) belonging to the subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus) found mainly in the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka (Dottlinger, 2002; Dottlinger andNicholls, 2005), Central and South-eastern China and northern Myanmar (Gehan de Silva et al., 2007). The shaheen falcon is also been reported from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Pande et al., 2009). The IUCN categorized of the Shaheen falcon as Vulnerable. It is said to be as a resident bird in this region by Ali and Reply (1987), It is also been described as a migratory subspecies by Molard et al. (2007).Shaheen falcon is a small and powerful falcon with blackish upperparts, rufous under parts with fine, dark streaks and white on the throat (Ali and Reply, 1987). The complete black face mask is sharply demarcated from the white throat. It also has distinctive rufous under wing-coverts. The length of the bird is ranging from 380 to 440 mm (Dottlinger, 2002 and Gehan de Silva et al., 2007). The male is about the size of a House Crow (Corvus splendens); the female is larger than male (Vijesundara, 2007). The Shaheen falcon is normally seen as a solitary bird or in pairs live on cliffs and rock pinnacles.It mostly hunts small and medium-sized birds such as pigeons, parrots and smaller mammals (Vijesundara,2007). They are very strong and fastest bird, also dive from great heights to strike prey with their talons. The impact does not kill the prey but they bite the neck of its victim to ensure death. The reproductive season of Shaheen falcon is from December to April and they construct their nests on high cliff ledges or in the cavities and tunnels (Vijesundara, 2007). The nests of Shaheen falcon has also been recorded on man-made structures such as buildings and transmission towers of mobile phone in India (Pande et al., 2009). Normally they lay 3-4 eggs in their clutch.Recently a pair of Shaheen falcon was sighted on 1st April 2014 on a tree top at Kinnakorai area of Nilgiri district. Further the area was thoroughly scanned and found a nest on the rocky cliff was occupied by these pair. The information about the falcon species is very little known in this region (Thrumurthi and Balaji, 1999).[11] Shaheen falcon Previous studies are revealed that nearly40 numbers of raptor species was recorded in the Upper Nilgiri regions (Zarri and Rahmani,2005). Regarding to the falcons Peregrine falcon was only a falcon species recorded in the Nilgiris so far (Davison 1883 &Thrumurthi and Balaji 1999). This is the first information of Shaheen falcon and its nesting site in this region. This recent observation of nest site record envisaged that the presence as well as breeding site of Shaheen falcon in the Nilgiris. This seems to be an encouraging trend of Shaheen falcon presence in the Nilgiris and it should be scientifically documented for future reference. Since most of the raptor species falls under endangered or critically endangered status, it is important to maintain a record for future scientific information.[12] Nesting Shaheen Falcon 

Description

The shaheen is a small and powerful-looking falcon with blackish upperparts, rufous underparts with fine, dark streaks, and white on the throat. The complete black face mask is sharply demarcated from the white throat. It has distinctive rufous underwing-coverts. It differs in all these features from the paler F. p. calidus, which is a scarce winter migrant to Sri Lanka.Males and females have similar markings and plumage; apart from size there is no sexual dimorphism.The birds range in length from 380 to 440 mm. The male is about the size of a house crow (Corvus splendens); the female is larger.

Distribution and habita

Shaheen Falcon
Shaheen Falcon
t The shaheen is found in South Asia from Pakistan across to India and Bangladesh in the east and to Sri Lanka,central and south-eastern China, and northern Myanmar. In India, it has been recorded in all states (except Uttar Pradesh), mainly from rocky and hilly regions. The shaheen has also been reported from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.

Ecology and behaviour

The shaheen is usually seen as a solitary bird, or in pairs on cliffs and rock pinnacles. Peregrines typically mate for life. Because of the size difference between a male and a female, a mated pair generally hunt different prey species. It is adapted to taking prey in the air and can achieve a speed of 240 kmh in level flight; when diving after prey it can exceed speeds of 320  kmh (200 mph).[13] Falcon ecology and behaviour

Feeding

Shaheens mostly hunt small birds, though medium-sized birds such as pigeons and parrots are also taken.Strong and fast, they dive from great heights to strike prey with their talons. If the impact does not kill the prey, the falcon bites the neck of its victim to ensure death.

Breeding

The reproductive season is from December to April. The birds occupy nests on high cliff ledges or in cavities and tunnels.They lay clutches of 3-4 eggs. The chicks fledge within 48 days with an average nesting success of 1.32 chicks per nest. In India the shaheen has been recorded as nesting on man-made structures such as buildings and mobile phone transmission towers.

Status

The conservation status of the shaheen in Sri Lanka is vulnerable [14] Vulnerable wikipedia A preliminary population estimate of 40 breeding pairs there was made in 1996, based on a brief survey.The estimate was later corrected to 100 breeding pairs.

In culture

In Pakistani [15] Pakistani wikipedia literature, the shaheen has a special association with the poetry of the country's national poet, Allama Iqbal. It also appears on the official seal of the Pakistan Air Force logo. A misprinted 1992 Indian stamp in a "birds of prey" series showed a picture of an osprey, with the incorrect denomination and the name Shahin Kohila, the Hindi name for female shaheen falcons; one of these stamps sold for £11,500 in a 2011 London auction.[16] Indian stamps fetch handsome prices moneylife.in


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