British EmpireFollowing the defeat of the Sikhs in the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, territories in the Punjab were also captured by the British East India Company. During the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the 4,000 members of the native garrison were disarmed without bloodshed; the absence of brutality meant that Peshawar was not affected by the widespread devastation that was experienced throughout the rest of British India and local chieftains sided with the British after the incident. British control remained confined within the city walls as vast regions of the Frontier province outside the city were claimed by the Kingdom of Afghanistan. The vast mountainous areas outside of the city were mapped out only in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand, foreign secretary of the British Indian government, who collaboratively demarcated the boundary of British-controlled areas with the Afghan ruler at the time, Abdur Rahman Khan.The British laid out the vast Peshawar Cantonment to the west of the city in 1868, and made the city its frontier headquarters. Additionally, several projects were initiated in Peshawar, including linkage of the city by railway to the rest of British India and renovation of the Mohabbat Khan mosque that had been desecrated by the Sikhs. The British also constructed Cunningham clock tower, in celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, and, in 1906, constructed Victoria Hall (now home of the Peshawar Museum) in memory of Queen Victoria. The British greatly contributed to the establishment of Western-style education in Peshawar with the establishment of Edwardes College and Islamia College in 1901 and 1913, respectively—these were established in addition to numerous other schools, many of which are run by the Anglican Church. For better administration of the region, Peshawar and the adjoining districts were separated from the Punjab Province in 1901.
AirportBacha Khan International Airport , is an international airport located in the city of Peshawar in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan . Located about a 10-minute drive from the centre of Peshawar, it is the fourth busiest airport in Pakistan. One unusual feature is that one end of the main runway is crossed by a railway line – the seldom-used Khyber train safari to Landi Kotal in the Khyber Pass . The airport was renamed on 27 January 2012 after Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (also known as Bacha Khan), a Pashtun nationalist political leader. Strategically situated in the heart of Peshawar, Bacha Khan International Airport is located approximately 180 km from Islamabad (federal capital of Pakistan) which makes it about two hours drive from the capital via M-1 motorway. Since Peshawar is the capital of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, it provides world connections for the majority of the northwest region of the country and adjoining areas of Afghanistan. Since the province has a large Afghan Pashtun community residing within KPK, Afghanistan flights have always been on the rise.
Railway stationPeshawar Cantonment railway station (Urdu: پشاور شہر ریلوے اسٹیشن, Pashto: د پېښور اردوگاه اورګاډي سټيشن (often abbreviated as Peshawar Cantt) is the principal railway station in the Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan . It is located on Saddar Road. The Station is staffed and has a booking office. Train routes
SportsArbab Niaz Stadium is the test cricket ground of Peshawar. Other stadiums are Army Stadium, Peshawar Club Ground and Qayyum Stadium. Cricket is the most popular sport in Peshawar and the city is home to the domestic team, Peshawar Panthers while Peshawar Zalmi represents Peshawar and the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa overall in Pakistan Super League. Hockey and squash are also popular in Peshawar. Shahi Bagh is available for general public for various out door games. Popular Sportsman
- Umar Gul, cricketer
- Yasir Hameed, cricketer
- Hashim Khan, squash player
- Musaddiq Hussain, hockey player
- Zakir Khan, Cricketer
EducationEveryone has different views about the people of Peshawar but you might be surprised to see that they are not only intellectual and well educated but also very up to date with the latest fashion trends when it comes to girls and also fun loving and not at all conservative which makes you want to visit the city more. There are also the opposite kind which forces people into stereotyping however that is not just about Peshawar anyone with lack of education or awareness can be categorized in a similar group. The following is a list of some of the public and private universities in Peshawar:
- University of Peshawar
- University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar
- Islamia College University
- National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar Campus (NU-FAST)
- Gandhara University
- Qurtuba University (Qurtuba University of Science & Information Technology)
- CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences
- Abasyn University (Abasyn University, Peshawar)
CultureFollowing the election of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) Islamic coalition in 2002, restrictions on public musical performances were introduced, as well as a ban prohibiting the playing of recorded music on public transport; however, a thriving underground scene has developed in Peshawar. In 2008, the secular political party, the Awami National Party (ANP), swept elections and won power from the Islamic coalition. Since the ANP assumed power in Peshawar, a greater focus has shifted towards the areas of culture and the arts, but the party has been hindered by a well-established conservatism among the population and the Taliban militancy. In June 2012, a Pashto singer, Ghazala Javed, and her father were killed in the city, with the subsequent investigation revealing that the pair were murdered. Javed's career was very successful and her death occurred close to three years after the death of another promising Pashto musical artist, Aiyman Udas, who was also murdered in a fringe area of the city. Such incidents have been associated with Peshawar's conservative culture and the influence of the Taliban, the latter being the reason for Javed's movement to Peshawar, as the Taliban had strengthened its presence in the Peshawar Valley in 2007. Historically, the old city of Peshawar was a heavily guarded citadel that consisted of high walls. In the 21st century, only remnants of the walls remain, but the houses and havelis continue to be structures of significance. Most of the houses are constructed of unbaked bricks, with the incorporation of wooden structures for protection against earthquakes, with many composed of wooden doors and latticed wooden balconies. Numerous examples of the city's old architecture can still be seen in areas such as Sethi Mohallah. In the old city, located in inner-Peshawar, many historic monuments and bazaars exist in the 21st century, including the Mohabbat Khan Mosque, Kotla Mohsin Khan, Chowk Yadgar and the Qissa Khawani Bazaar. Due to the damage caused by rapid growth and development, the old walled city has been identified as an area that urgently requires restoration and protection. Author, Dr Raj Wali Shah Khattak, a former director of the Pushto Academy and a senior academic at the University of Peshawar, has written in his book, An Intangible Heritage: The Walled City of Peshawar.
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