Pakistan has historically been one of the world’s major crossroads. It occupies an area in which almost all major races and cultures have left their trace. It came into being on 14th August 1947 after the struggle of Quaid-e-Azam and the sacrifices of Millions of Muslims. Pakistan stands today as the strongest Muslim nation state from a military perspective being the only Muslim country with Nuclear weapons and a standing army of nearly 700,000 personnel.
|Founder:||Muhammad Ali Jinnah|
|Pakistan Purpose Name:||Chaudhry Rehmat Ali|
|Local Language Name:||اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان|
|Coordinates :||30Â°N 70Â°E|
|Government:||Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Republic|
|Prime Minister:||Nawaz Sharif|
|Speaker of the Assembly:||Sardar Ayaz Sadiq|
|Chairman of the Senate:||Raza Rabbani|
|Chief Justice:||Mian Saqib Nisar|
|Lyrics:||Hafeez Jullundhri, June 1952|
|National Anthem:||Qaum Tarnah|
|Music:||Ahmad G. Chagla, 21 August 1949|
|Type:||Islamic Republic of Pakistan|
|GDP:||$1.059 trillion (2017) estimate|
|GDP (nominal):||$270.961 billion (2015) estimate|
|Gini (2013):||30.7 medium|
|HDI (2015):||Steady 0.550 medium|
|Currency:||Pakistani rupee (PKR)|
|Time zone:||PST (UTC+5b)|
|Drives on the:||left|
|ISO 3166 code:||PK|
|Chief Justice:||Mian Saqib Nisar|
|Lower house:||National Assembly|
|Independence:||From the United Kingdom|
|Conception:||29 December 1930|
|Declaration:||28 January 1933|
|Resolution:||23 March 1940|
|Dominion:||14 August 1947|
|Islamic Republic:||23 March 1956|
|Area:||881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi)|
|Population:||201,995,540 ( 2016) estimate|
|Density:||244.4/km2 (633.0/sq mi) (56th)|
|Regional languages:||Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Saraiki, Balochi, Kashmiri, Brahui, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Burushaski Yidgha, Dameli, Kalasha, Gawar-Bati, Domaaki|
|Ethnic groups (2016):||44.68% Punjabis, 15.42% Pashtuns, 14.1% Sindhis, 8.38% Saraikis, 7.57% Muhajirs, 3.57% Balochis|
|Religion:||96.4% Islam , 3.6% others|
|National Poet:||Allama DR. Muhammad Iqbal|
|National Tree:||Cedrus deodara|
|Notional Dress:||Shalwar Qameez|
|National Juice:||Sugarcane Juice|
|Adopted:||13 August 1954|
|Composed By:||Ahmed Rushdi|
When the Europeans were dressed in animal skins and the USA was known only to the native the men and women who lived on the land that is now Pakistan were part of one of the most sophisticated societies on earth. The ancient Egyptians, who lived around the same time, may have been better at building pyramids, but when it came to constructing cities, the Indus people were well ahead. Nothing was known of the Indus civilisation until the 1920s, when excavations at Harappa and Moenjodaro revealed cities built of brick. Subsequent research has shown that the Indus people flourished around 25001500 BC.They had a population of roughly five million and a sophisticated bureaucracy with standardised systems for weights and brick sizes. While the evidence is sketchy, many scholars believe that a priestly elite governed the Indus people. The Indus civilisation probably declined due to the drying of the Indus Valley. There followed centuries of economic decline and foreign conquest. The first to arrive were the Aryans, whose Vedic religion laid the basis for Hinduism as it is practised today. They were followed by Alexander the Great. When you travel in northern Pakistan and, in particular, places such as the Kalasha valleys, you may notice people with relatively pale skin, fair hair and blue eyes. According to popular theory these are the descendants of Alexander the Great troops. In AD 711 an Arab general, Mohammed bin Qasim, arrived in Sindh. He and his 6000 cavalrymen were to have a major impact because they brought with them the religion of Islam. After the Arabs had made inroads from the south, in the 11th century the Turkish rulers of Afghanistan, led by Mahmud of Ghazni, brought the same message of Islam from the north. Muslims were then established as the ruling class, although it was not until the arrival of the Mughal dynasty that there was a truly formidable Islamic government able to leave a lasting architectural and cultural impression.
The Mughals were the undisputed masters of the subcontinent through the 16th and 17th centuries.Their empire was one of only three periods in history during which the subcontinent has come under sustained, unified rule. (The others to pull off this feat were the Mauryas and the British.) The first Mughal emperor, Babur, used the traditional route to invade: from Central Asia. Having taken Kabul he conquered Delhi in 1526. The dynasty he founded endured for more than three centuries. The other great Mughal emperors included Akbar (15561605), Shah Jahan (162758) and Aurangzeb (16581707). Because they were Muslims, the Mughals remain a source of great pride in Pakistan. Under Akbar and his son Jehangir, Lahore was the capital of the empire, and remains home to some of the Muhgals greatest architectural legacies, including the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort and Jehangir Tomb. All combine the Mughal skill for working on a grand scale and their great use of arches, domes, carvings and towers. While the Mughals are today most often celebrated for their artistic legacy, they were also excellent administrators who managed to concentrate power in the central government. Their sophisticated bureaucratic systems became particularly highly developed under Akbar. He appointed officials on the basis of merit rather than family rank. He also prevented the establishment of rival power bases by paying loyal officials in cash rather than land. While many of the Mughal rulers were hostile to their Hindu subjects, Akbar took a different view. He saw that the number of Hindus in India was too great to subjugate. Instead, he integrated them into his empire and allowed Hindus to reach senior positions in the government and the military. Like imperial powers before and after them, the Mughals became overstretched. By the time of Aurangzeb death, their empire had become so big it was largely ungovernable. Slowly but steadily the Mughals power ebbed away. Their administrative systems were weakened by debilitating and very violent succession struggles and by the decadence of court life. Local powerbrokers in the provinces seized their opportunity and, complaining of Muslim domination and too many taxes, mounted a series of armed rebellions. Faced with these challenges, the Mughals increasingly became rulers only in name. Technically, though, the Mughal empire existed right up until 1857, when the British deposed the 19th and last Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah II.
The first Britons to arrive in Asia were traders from the British East India Company. They came by sea at the beginning of the 17th century and their goal was not conquest but profit. Initially they restricted themselves to business, doing deals with the Mughal emperors and local rulers. Gradually, though, the relationship changed. In time British factories were established and when faced with disputes they began to apply British rather than local law. Punjab before moving on to the perennially ungovernable North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan . A major consequence of the revolt was the abolition of the British East India Company. The British crown imposed direct rule through its governor general or viceroy, and Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. Significantly, the British made a compromise with the 565 princely rulers who controlled 40% of the land on the subcontinent. Instead of demanding that they surrender full sovereignty, the British allowed the princely rulers to keep control of their internal affairs if they professed loyalty to the Crown and surrendered all rights to conduct foreign or defence policy. In Pakistan today there is still evidence of the British legacy. The law courts in Lahore, for instance, blend architectural styles from East and West, and the Mall (also in Lahore) is another lasting reminder of the Raj (British government in India). The British imperialists also left behind their traditional legacies: a railway network and the English language.As the profits grew, the traders became increasingly involved in local politics. Matters came to a head in 1757, when armed men fighting for the British East India Company under Robert Clive clashed with the chief (nawab) of Bengal, Siraj-ud-daula. That Clive won the encounter should have been of little surprise. Many of the nawab soldiers had been bribed to throw away their weapons. The British soon started behaving like imperialists, determined to take territory. The first part of present-day Pakistan to come under British control was Sindh in 1843. Next the British tackled the Sikh rulers from the rich and fertile land of
Birth Of Pakistan
Two men are generally credited with having secured the existence of Pakistan. The first was Allama Mohammed Iqbal, a poet and philosopher from Lahore. Mohammed Ali Jinnah to put it into practice. The British were initially reluctant to divide the subcontinent, but through a mixture of brilliant advocacy skills and sheer obstinacy Jinnah got his way. Jinnah is a universally revered figure in Pakistan. You will see his image and his name depicted on buildings all over the country. He is often referred to as Quaid-i-Azam or the Quaid (Leader of the People or Great Leader). For a time the emphasis remained on unity. In 1916 Congress and the Muslim League agreed to the Lucknow Pact, under which they were to campaign for constitutional reform together. After the British massacred a crowd of unarmed protestors at Amritsar in 1919, the demands for greater self-governance turned into an insistence on full independence. The British responded with limited concessions, increasing the number of Indians in the administration and in self-governing institutions. Iqbal gave no name to his proposed nation. That was done by a student at Cambridge University, Chaudhry Rahmat Ali, who suggested it be called Pakistan. Taken as one word Pakistan means Land of the Spiritually Clean and Pure . But it was also a sort of acronym standing for Punjab , Afghania (North-West Frontier Province), Kashmir, Sindh and Balochistan. As the moment of Independence approached, huge numbers of people went on the move. Hindus, fearful of living in the new Pakistan, headed east. So too did the Sikhs. In the period before the British extended their influence to Punjab and Kashmir, the Sikhs had been the dominant power, controlling territory right up to the Afghan border. By 1849 the British military had defeated them and now, with Partition looming, they decided to move and make their future in India. The Muslims, meanwhile, were also leaving their villages and making for their new homeland. It was the largest mass migration in modern times. Around eight million people gave up their jobs, homes and communities. Most travelled on foot or by train and in doing so risked their lives. Many never made it, becoming victims of the frenzied violence triggered by Partition. The scale of the killing was terrible: it estimated that up to a million people were butchered in communal violence. Trains full of Muslims, fleeing westwards, were held up and slaughtered by Hindu and Sikh mobs. Hindus and Sikhs fleeing to the east suffered the same fate. For those who crossed the rivers of blood that separated the two new nations and survived, the feeling of relief was intense. And on 14 August 1947, Pakistan achieved independence.Iqbal proposed the creation of a separate Muslim state on those parts of the subcontinent where there was a Muslim majority. While Iqbal articulated the demand for a Muslim state, it took
Provinces of Pakistan
|3||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ( N.W.F.P )|
|3||Azad Jammu and Kashmir|
The army has come to see itself as the defender of Pakistan honour, but its record is far from glorious.If Pakistan is, as many Pakistanis believe, a failed state, then the army must take a share of the blame. Consuming a disproportionate amount of government expenditure, and wielding significant economic as well as political power, even in times of civilian rule the military has interfered in foreign and domestic policy areas. There have been four military rulers in Pakistan history. All were more willing to grasp power than to give it up. The first was General Ayub Khan, a Sandhurst-educated paternalist who believed the illiterate Pakistani masses were not ready for Western-style democracy. After 11 years in power, he was forced out of office by mass protests in 1969. As a heavy drinker and habitual womaniser, his successor, General Mohammed Yayha Khan, was hardly representative of the people he ruled. He offered hope to the nation by organising Pakistan first-ever national elections. Widely accepted to have been the fairest that have ever occurred in the country, they asserted a Bengali political nationalism unacceptable to Yayha. His response was to send the tanks into East Pakistan in a bloody, yet unsuccessful war. India military support for Bangladeshi independence led directly to Yayha downfall, and a brief period of civilian government under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Pakistan fourth military (now civilian) ruler, President Pervez Musharraf, is determined to undo Zia ul Haq legacy. He has publicly opposed the Islamic militants, although he has taken mixed steps to challenge them, sending the army into the autonomous and radicalised Tribal Areas along the Afghan border for the first time but then leaving the controversial madrasah (Islamic college) system largely untouched for fear of provoking violent reactions. Having launched the Kargil war himself in 1999, he has continued to make an exception for Islamists fighting the Indians in Kashmir. The army military record is about as bleak as its political one. From the outset it has been unable to cope with the sheer size of its Indian rival. Faced with an acute military imbalance, Pakistan first politicians made defence expenditure their top priority. Yet even today Pakistan army is half the size of India , with significantly fewer tanks and aircraft. Pakistan has had four major military confrontations with India. The 1971 war resulted in Pakistan losing approximately one-fifth of its territory. The other three clashes, in 1947, 1965 and 1999, all took place in Kashmir. On all three occasions Pakistan started fights it was never in a position to win.
Throughout the British Raj the leaders of the 565 princely states kept nominal control of their territories.For decades this amounted to nothing more than a constitutional nicety because in practice they were subservient to the British. But in 1947 the princely rulers had the power to decide whether they joined India or Pakistan. The choice was especially difficult for Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir. His state bordered both India and Pakistan. And while he was a Hindu, his population was predominantly Muslim. The maharaja was uncertain what do to, but many Pakistanis were determined that the predominantly Muslim Kashmiris should join Pakistan. In October 1947 Pashtun tribesmen from North-West Frontier Province tried to force the issue by invading Kashmir, with the tacit consent of the new Pakistani authorities. But the strategy backfired when the maharaja requested armed assistance from India. As a result of the fighting in 1947, and the crushing defeat of the 1965 war, Pakistan currently occupies around one-third of Kashmir, which it calls Azad (Free) Kashmir, and India occupies the other two-thirds. (The situation is further complicated by the fact that, after 1947, China occupied an area called Aksai Chin in Indian-occupied Kashmir. India objection to this was one of the factors behind the 1962 Indo-Chinese War, in which India was heavily defeated.) Kashmir remains a highly emotive issue for Pakistan. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif attempt to sack Musharraf as head of the army as a result of the Kargil fiasco led to the coup that brought the general to power a prime example of the central role Kashmir has come to play in Pakistani politics. Each day the newspapers and state-controlled TV pour out propaganda on the issue. For more than 60 years the Kashmiri people have been caught between India and Pakistan intense rivalry. By now most Kashmiris are sick of the fighting and given a choice would probably opt for independence. But with both sides determined to hang on there is very little prospect they will be given that choice.
Domestic politics has undergone many challenges since Pakistani Independence, irrespective of whether the leader of the day arrived through the ballot box or by a coup. Despite the unifying banner of Islam, many of the deepest problems have arisen from different ethnic groups competing for a slice of political and economic power. Karachi became a byword for ethnic violence. Pakistan central government did not make a serious attempt to tackle the MQM until 1995, when the army launched a clampdown. It was a brutal campaign with many extrajudicial killings. The MQM has been forced into relative quiescence ever since, although violence again erupted in 2007 with a murderous attack on a political demonstration, allegedly by MQM supporters. The strength of Pashtun nationalism has diminished in large part because of the Pashtuns relatively strong representation in Pakistan central institutions. While the Tribal Areas have been left to stagnate (and become a haven for violent Islamism), the Pashtuns have been particularly active migrants within Pakistan. The establishment of a large Pashtun community in Karachi , for example, means many Pashtun families have a direct interest in the stability and continued existence of the Pakistani state. Despite having had the strongest national movement in 1947, the Pashtuns have never presented a significant challenge to Pakistan central institutions. The reason is clear: to a greater extent than the Sindhis, the Baloch and the Mohajirs, the Pashtuns have been given a share in the country.Of the five major ethnic groups in Pakistan (Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Baloch and Mohajirs), the Punjabis have the upper hand. Theirs is the richest and most populous province and provides most of the army officer corps. All the other national groups routinely complain of Punjabi dominance. Gradually, Pakistan traditional inhabitants reasserted themselves and many Mohajirs were forced out of their government jobs. By the 1980s the Mohajirs dreams of forging a new Islamic nation had been replaced by bitter disillusionment expressed in increasingly militant politics. The Mohajirs political party, the Mohajir Quami Movement (MQM), has always denied any involvement in bloodshed, but there is no doubt that the conflict between the Mohajirs and the Sindhis did turn violent. At the height of the troubles in the 1980s and early 1990s,
Supreme Court of Pakistan
The Supreme Court of Pakistan was established on 2nd March 1956 under the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1956.The Supreme Court is the apex Court of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. It is the Court of ultimate appeal and therefore final arbiter of law and the Constitution. It exercises original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction. Its judgments/decisions are binding on all other courts in the country. All the executive and the judicial authorities are bound to act in aid of the Supreme Court.
Chief Justice of Supreme Court
- Mr. Justice Mian Saqib Nisar
Honourable Judges of Supreme Court of Pakistan
- Mr. Justice Asif Saeed Khan Khosa
- Mr. Justice Ejaz Afzal Khan
- Mr. Justice Gulzar Ahmad Khan
- Mr. Justice Sheikh Azmat Saeed
- Mr. Justice Mushir Alam
- Mr. Justice Dost Muhammad Khan
- Mr. Justice Umar Ata Bandial
- Mr. Justice Qazi Faez Isa
- Mr. Justice Maqbool Baqar
- Mr. Justice Manzoor Ahmad Malik
- Mr. Justice Sardar Tariq Masood
- Mr. Justice Faisal Arab
- Mr. Justice Ijaz ul Ahsan
- Mr. Justice Mazhar Alam Khan Miankhel
- Mr. Justice Sajjad Ali Shah
Lahore High Cout
Lahore High Court is the highest judicial institution of Punjab, Lahore High Court, located in Lahore, the capital of Punjab Province. The High Court of Lahore have its benches in Rawalpindi , Multan and Bahawalpur .
Sindh High Court
Sindh High Court is the highest judicial institution of Sindh ,Sindh High Court, located in Karachi, the capital of Sindh Province. Mr. Justice Ahmad Ali Shaikh is the Chief Justice of Sindh High Court . The High Court of Sindh have its benches in Hyderabad , Sukkar and Larkana .
Peshawar High Court
Peshawar High Court is the highest judicial institution of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,Peshawar High Court, located in Peshawar , the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. The High Court of Peshawar have its benches in Abbotabad , Dera Ismail Khan , Bannu and Mingora.
Balochistan High court
Balochistan High Court is the highest judicial institution of Balochistan , Balochistan High Court, located in Quetta, the capital of Balochistan Province. The High Court of Balochistan was established on 1st December, 1976 .
Islamabad High Court
The Islamabad High Court was established under Islamabad High Court Act, 2010 after the 18th amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan. Islamabad High Court, located in Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan.
Federal Shariat Court
Federal Shariat Court is is a court which has the power to examine and determine whether the laws of the country comply with Shari’a law, Islamabad , the capital of Pakistan. The Federal Shariat Court was established by the President Order No.1 of 1980 as incorporated in the Constitution of Pakistan.Federal Shariat Court is located in
Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi’a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other (inc. Sikh) 3%
- Islam is practised by the majority of Pakistanis and governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives.
- Among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day – at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening.
- Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed.
- During the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing.
Contrary to the sensational media headlines about declining Hindu population in Pakistan,the fact is that Hindu birth rate is significantly higher than the country’s national average. Although Hindus make up only 1.9% of Pakistan’s population, it is among the worlds fastest growing Hindu communities today, growing faster than the Hindu populations in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Indonesia. Pakistan Census data. For 1931 and 1941, the figures are for West Pakistan in undivided India. For 1951 and 1961, the figures are for West Pakistan in undivided Pakistan. Data for 1971 could not be accessed.Hindu population of the areas that now constitute Pakistan was 15% in 1931 India Census. It declined to 14% in 1941 India Census. Then first Pakistan Census in 1951 showed it was 1.3% after the massive cross-border migration of both Hindus and Muslims in 1947. Since 1951, the Hindu population of what is now Pakistan has grown from 1.3% to 1.9% now.
Pakistanis a country which is rich in culture and religion. Islam is the major religion but along with it there are other minorities like Christians, Hindu, Sikh, Ahmadis, Chitrals, and Afghans etc.Christians are the largest minority community inPakistan. They constitute about 1.6%of thePakistan population.Christianity in Asia has its roots in the very inception of Christianity, which originated with Jesus Christ, and then spread through the missionary work of his apostles. Christianity first expanded in the Levant, taking roots in the major cities such as Jerusalem and Antioch. According to tradition, further eastward expansion occurred via the preaching of Saint Thomas the Apostle, who established Christianity in the Parthian Empire (Iran) and Pakistan.
Pakistan is home to more than 180 million people. They are involved in different segments of the economy, whether it is the primary sector producing crops and livestock produce for the people or in manufacturing and tertiary sectors, everyone is busy doing one thing or another. In order for people to get around, land, sea and air transport is available. The road and rail network plays a very important part. The road network is the backbone of trade and commerce in the country.
Motorways and Highways
The national highway and motorway together form an extensive network. From the deep-water Port Qasim in Karachi to the Khunjerab pass in the northern Karakoram Range and Taftan in the western-most zone in Balochistan, the road network connects all areas together. More than 8909km of roads provide easy access between the remotest cities and towns of the country. In addition, these facilitate not only the transport of freight but also the travel of people for business and leisure.The domestic transportation system was not well developed at independence. Railroads were the main means of transportation, but the network in West Pakistan had been constructed under the assumption that the area formed part of a larger subcontinental economic and political entity and was not suited to the needs of the new nation. Considerable development was necessary to improve links between Karachi , Pakistan’s first capital and the country’s principal port and commercial center, and Punjab, where Islamabad was established as the new administrative capital in 1962.
Public Transport System
The public transport system is operating in all major towns and cities of the country. There are wagons, rickshaws and taxis to supplement the bus systems.A recent addition to Lahore transport system is a new Metro bus system. The city was in dire need of having a mass transit system along one of its most heavily used route. Rapid bus transit system constructed with Turkish collaboration is a 27km bus track stretching from Shahdrah Town to Gajju Mata along the main Ferozpur Road. There is a state-of-the-art electronic ticketing system and turnstiles. There are plans to add two more commercial lines and expand the route to other areas of the city.Moreover, the rail network stretches along the length and width of the country. On a recent visit to China, the desire to built a high-speed rail from Karachi to Peshawar with Chinese cooperation was expressed by our premier, if then is built according to plan then the ease of inter-city travel will increase manifold.
Inland Water Transport System
Pakistan is a country having an expansive river and canal network. At present this network is not utilized as an inland cargo water transport system. However, initial feasibility studies show that there is great potential for such development. This would result in economical transport of goods up-country. In addition to significantly reduced cargo transport costs, the saving on fuel used for transport can be utilized for critical power generation.Shipping capacity decreased in the 1980s. The merchant fleet, almost all operated by the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation (PNSC), consisted in 1992 of twenty-two vessels, down from fifty vessels in 1982. Approximately half the fleet is more than fifteen years old and is unsuited to present needs. The PNSC handled 2.74 million tons of cargo in the last six months of 1991, compared with 2.77 million tons during the corresponding period in 1990. In 1992, in line with its privatization policy, the government invited applications for setting up a private shipping sector and promised to operate the PNSC on a commercial basis.
In addition to roads and railways, Pakistan transport systems also facilitate air travel. There are numerous domestic and around 11 international airports. These connect Pakistan to the international air routes and also ease travel via land routes within the country.In early 1994, the major airline was the government-controlled Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). PIA had a fleet of forty-seven aircraft in March 1993, of which fifteen were wide-bodied Boeing 747s and A300-B4s. The PIA network includes forty-five international and thirty-five domestic airports. There are international airports at Karachi , Islamabad , Lahore , Peshawar , and Quetta . Several small private airlines began operating domestic routes in 1993. One of these carriers, Shaheen Air International, also operates international cargo routes and plans to provide international passenger service in 1994 or 1995.
The railroad system is government owned and covers 8,775 kilometers (see fig. 9). In FY 1992 there were 753 locomotives and 34,851 freight wagons. The system usually runs at a loss. In mid-1992 the most profitable route, that between Lahore and Faisalabad , was privatized. It is expected that the government will attempt to privatize other rail routes, but the Lahore , Faisalabad line was renationalized in September 1993 when the private operator failed to make a profit.Now the railway’s share of inland traffic is only 10% for passengers and 4% for freight traffic. Personal transportation dominated by the automobiles, the total rail track decreased from 8,775 kilometres (5,453 miles) in 199091 to 7,791 kilometres (4,841 miles) in 2011.