Pakistan (Anthem)

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2017-04-06 10:46:38Pakistan
Pakistan has historically been one of the world's major crossroads. It occupies an area in which almost all major races and cultures have left their trace. It came into being on 14th August 1947 after the struggle of Quaid-e-Azam and the sacrifices of Millions of Muslims. Pakistan stands today as the strongest Muslim nation state from a military perspective being the only Muslim country with Nuclear weapons and a standing army of nearly 700,000 personnel.
  • Information
  • Location:

    South Asia

  • Founder:

    Muhammad Ali Jinnah

  • Thinker:

    Allama Iqbal

  • Pakistan Purpose Name:

    Chaudhry Rehmat Ali

  • Type:

    Islamic Country

  • Local Language Name:

    اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان‎

  • Coordinates :

    30°N 70°E

  • Website:

    www.pakistan.gov.pk

  • Government
  • Government:

    Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Republic

  • President:

    Mamnoon Hussain

  • Prime Minister:

    Nawaz Sharif

  • Speaker of the Assembly:

    Sardar Ayaz Sadiq

  • Chairman of the Senate:

    Raza Rabbani

  • Chief Justice:

    Mian Saqib Nisar

  • Details
  • Lyrics:

    Hafeez Jullundhri, June 1952

  • National Anthem:

    Qaum Tarnah

  • Music:

    Ahmad G. Chagla, 21 August 1949

  • Type:

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan

  • GDP:

    $1.059 trillion (2017) estimate

  • Per capital:

    $5,402

  • GDP (nominal):

    $270.961 billion (2015) estimate

  • Per capital:

    $1,427

  • Gini (2013):

    30.7 medium

  • HDI (2015):

    Steady 0.550 medium

  • Currency:

    Pakistani rupee (PKR)

  • Time zone:

    PST (UTC+5b)

  • Drives on the:

    left

  • Calling code:

    +92

  • ISO 3166 code:

    PK

  • Internet TLD:

    .pk

  • Chief Justice:

    Mian Saqib Nisar

  • Legislature:

    Parliament

  • Upper house:

    Senate

  • Lower house:

    National Assembly

  • Independence:

    From the United Kingdom

  • Conception:

    29 December 1930

  • Declaration:

    28 January 1933

  • Resolution:

    23 March 1940

  • Dominion:

    14 August 1947

  • Islamic Republic:

    23 March 1956

  • Area:

    881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi)

  • Water (%):

    2.86

  • Population:

    201,995,540 ( 2016) estimate

  • Density:

    244.4/km2 (633.0/sq mi) (56th)

  • Capital:

    Islamabad

  • Coordinates:

    33°40′N 73°10′E

  • Largest city:

    Karachi

  • Coordinates:

    24°51′36″N 67°00′36″E

  • Official languages:

    Urdu,English

  • National language:

    Urdu

  • Regional languages:

    Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Saraiki, Balochi, Kashmiri, Brahui, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Burushaski Yidgha, Dameli, Kalasha, Gawar-Bati, Domaaki

  • Ethnic groups (2016):

    44.68% Punjabis, 15.42% Pashtuns, 14.1% Sindhis, 8.38% Saraikis, 7.57% Muhajirs, 3.57% Balochis

  • Religion:

    96.4% Islam , 3.6% others

  • Demonym:

    Pakistani

  • National Poet:

    Allama DR. Muhammad Iqbal

  • National Animal:

    Markhor

  • National Bird:

    Chukar

  • National Flower:

    Jasmine

  • National Tree:

    Cedrus deodara

  • National Sports:

    Hockey

  • Notional Dress:

    Shalwar Qameez

  • National Juice:

    Sugarcane Juice

  • Adopted:

    13 August 1954

  • Composed By:

    Ahmed Rushdi

About

Pakistan
Pakistan

Early History

Pakistan
Pakistan
When the Europeans were dressed in animal skins and the USA was known only to the native   the men and women who lived on the land that is now Pakistan  were part of one of the most sophisticated societies on earth. The ancient Egyptians, who lived around the same time, may have been better at building pyramids, but when it came to constructing cities, the Indus people were well ahead.[1] Early civilisations Pakistan  the - most sophisticated Nothing was known of the Indus civilisation until the 1920s, when excavations at Harappa and Moenjodaro revealed cities built of brick. Subsequent research has shown that the Indus people flourished around 25001500 BC.They had a population of roughly five million and a sophisticated bureaucracy with standardised systems for weights and brick sizes. While the evidence is sketchy, many scholars believe that a priestly elite governed the Indus people.[2] Harappa and Moenjodaro - revealed cities The Indus civilisation probably declined due to the drying of the Indus Valley. There followed centuries of economic decline and foreign conquest. The first to arrive were the Aryans, whose Vedic religion laid the basis for Hinduism as it is practised today. They were followed by Alexander the Great. When you travel in northern Pakistan and, in particular, places such as the Kalasha valleys, you may notice people with relatively pale skin, fair hair and blue eyes. According to popular theory these are the descendants of Alexander the Great  troops.[3] Indus civilisation probably declined - Indus Valley [4] Pakistan and, in particular, places - Kalasha valleys In AD 711 an Arab general, Mohammed bin Qasim, arrived in Sindh.[5] Turkish rulers of Afghanistan -   Mahmud of Ghazni He and his 6000 cavalrymen were to have a major impact because they brought with them the religion of Islam. After the Arabs had made inroads from the south, in the 11th century the Turkish rulers of Afghanistan, led by Mahmud of Ghazni, brought the same message of Islam from the north. Muslims were then established as the ruling class, although it was not until the arrival of the Mughal dynasty that there was a truly formidable Islamic government able to leave a lasting architectural and cultural impression.[6] Arab general, Mohammed bin Qasim - in Sindh

Mughal History

The Mughals were the undisputed masters of the subcontinent through the 16th and 17th centuries. [7] Their empire  one of only three periods - in history Their empire was one of only three periods in history during which the subcontinent has come under sustained, unified rule. (The others to pull off this feat were the Mauryas and the British.) [8] Central Asia. Having taken Kabul - Pakistan The first Mughal emperor, Babur, used the traditional route to invade: from Central Asia. Having taken Kabul he conquered Delhi in 1526. [9] Mughals skill for working on a - grand scale The dynasty he founded endured for more than three centuries. The other great Mughal emperors included Akbar (15561605), Shah Jahan (162758) and Aurangzeb (16581707). [10] Mughals are  celebrated for their - artistic legacy Because they were Muslims, the Mughals remain a source of great pride in Pakistan. Under Akbar and his son Jehangir, Lahore was the capital of the empire, and remains home to some of the Muhgals greatest architectural legacies, including the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort and Jehangir  Tomb. All combine the Mughal skill for working on a grand scale and their great use of arches, domes, carvings and towers.[11] Establishment of rival power bases - by paying While the Mughals are today most often celebrated for their artistic legacy, they were also excellent administrators who managed to concentrate power in the central government. [12] Positions in the government and - the military Their sophisticated bureaucratic systems became particularly highly developed under Akbar.[13] Mughal rulers were hostile to their - Hindu subjects He appointed officials on the basis of merit rather than family rank. He also prevented the establishment of rival power bases by paying loyal officials in cash rather than land. While many of the Mughal rulers were hostile to their Hindu subjects, Akbar took a different view. He saw that the number of Hindus in India was too great to subjugate. Instead, he integrated them into his empire and allowed Hindus to reach senior positions in the government and the military.[14] concentrate power in the - central government Like imperial powers before and after them, the Mughals became overstretched. By the time of Aurangzeb  death, their empire had become so big it was largely ungovernable.[15] excellent administrators  managed - concentrate Slowly but steadily the Mughals power ebbed away. Their administrative systems were weakened by debilitating and very violent succession struggles and by the decadence of court life. Local powerbrokers in the provinces seized their opportunity and, complaining of Muslim domination and too many taxes, mounted a series of armed rebellions. Faced with these challenges, the Mughals increasingly became rulers only in name. Technically, though, the Mughal empire existed right up until 1857, when the British deposed the 19th and last Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah II.[16] Slowly but steadily  Mughals power - ebbed away

British History

The first Britons to arrive in Asia were traders from the British East India Company. They came by sea at the beginning of the 17th century and their goal was not conquest but profit. Initially they restricted themselves to business, doing deals with the Mughal emperors and local rulers. Gradually, though, the relationship changed. In time British factories were established and when faced with disputes they began to apply British rather than local law. [17] In time British factories were - established As the profits grew, the traders became increasingly involved in local politics.[18] British East India Company - under Robert Matters came to a head in 1757, when armed men fighting for the British East India Company under Robert Clive clashed with the chief (nawab) of Bengal, Siraj-ud-daula. That Clive won the encounter should have been of little surprise. Many of the nawab  soldiers had been bribed to throw away their weapons.[19] Traders from the British - East India Company The British soon started behaving like imperialists, determined to take territory. The first part of present-day Pakistan to come under British control was Sindh in 1843. Next the British tackled the Sikh rulers from the rich and fertile land of Punjab  before moving on to the perennially ungovernable North-West Frontier Province and  Balochistan .[20] North-West Frontier Province and - Balochistan [21] Major challenge to British rule came - in 1857 A major consequence of the revolt was the abolition of the British East India Company.[22] The demands for more  - self-governance The British crown imposed direct rule through its governor general or viceroy, and Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. Significantly, the British made a compromise with the 565 princely rulers who controlled 40% of the land on the subcontinent. Instead of demanding that they surrender full sovereignty, the British allowed the princely rulers to keep control of their internal affairs if they professed loyalty to the Crown and surrendered all rights to conduct foreign or defence policy.[23] Rights to conduct foreign or - defence policy In Pakistan today there is still evidence of the British legacy. The law courts in Lahore, for instance, blend architectural styles from East and West, and the Mall (also in Lahore) is another lasting reminder of the Raj (British government in India). The British imperialists also left behind their traditional legacies: a railway network and the English language.[24] The law courts in Lahore - for instance

Birth Of Pakistan

Pakistan
Pakistan
Two men are generally credited with having secured the existence of Pakistan. The first was Allama Mohammed Iqbal, a poet and philosopher from Lahore.[25] All-India Muslim League,to protect - and advance Iqbal proposed the creation of a separate Muslim state on those parts of the subcontinent where there was a Muslim majority.[26] Allama Mohammed Iqbal, a poet - and philosopher While Iqbal articulated the demand for a Muslim state, it took  Mohammed Ali Jinnah  to put it into practice. The British were initially reluctant to divide the subcontinent, but through a mixture of brilliant advocacy skills and sheer obstinacy Jinnah got his way. Jinnah is a universally revered figure in Pakistan.[27] Muslims  united in their struggle against - the British You will see his image and his name depicted on buildings all over the country. He is often referred to as Quaid-i-Azam or the Quaid (Leader of the People or Great Leader).[28] Quaid-i-Azam  Leader of the People - Great Leader For a time the emphasis remained on unity. In 1916 Congress and the Muslim League agreed to the Lucknow Pact, under which they were to campaign for constitutional reform together.[29] Around eight million people gave up - their jobs After the British massacred a crowd of unarmed protestors at Amritsar in 1919, the demands for greater self-governance turned into an insistence on full independence. The British responded with limited concessions, increasing the number of Indians in the administration and in self-governing institutions.[30] Administration and in self-governing - institutions Iqbal gave no name to his proposed nation. That was done by a student at Cambridge University, Chaudhry Rahmat Ali, who suggested it be called Pakistan. Taken as one word Pakistan means Land of the Spiritually Clean and Pure .[31] British extended their influence - to Punjab But it was also a sort of acronym standing for  Punjab , Afghania (North-West Frontier Province), Kashmir, Sindh and Balochistan.[32] (North-West Frontier Province) - Kashmir, Sindh As the moment of Independence approached, huge numbers of people went on the move. Hindus, fearful of living in the new Pakistan, headed east. So too did the Sikhs. In the period before the British extended their influence to  Punjab  and Kashmir, the Sikhs had been the dominant power, controlling territory right up to the Afghan border. [33] controlling territory right up to the - Afghan border By 1849 the British military had defeated them and now, with Partition looming, they decided to move and make their future in India. The Muslims, meanwhile, were also leaving their villages and making for their new homeland.[34] The Muslims   making for their - new homeland It was the largest mass migration in modern times. Around eight million people gave up their jobs, homes and communities. Most travelled on foot or by train and in doing so risked their lives. Many never made it, becoming victims of the frenzied violence triggered by Partition. The scale of the killing was terrible: it estimated that up to a million people were butchered in communal violence.[35] Pakistan  achieved independence - August 1947 Trains full of Muslims, fleeing westwards, were held up and slaughtered by Hindu and Sikh mobs. Hindus and Sikhs fleeing to the east suffered the same fate. For those who crossed the rivers of blood that separated the two new nations and survived, the feeling of relief was intense. And on 14 August 1947, Pakistan  achieved independence.[36] largest mass migration in - modern times

Provinces of Pakistan

Pakistan
Pakistan
#
Province Name
 1 Punjab
 2 Sindh 
 3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa  ( N.W.F.P )
4Balochistan[37] About territories - pakinformation.com
 5Gilgit Baltistan

Territories

Territories
 1 Islamabad 
2FATA
3 Azad Jammu and Kashmir[38] Province of Pakistan - www.pakinformation.com

Others

Pakistan
Pakistan

Military

Pakistan
Pakistan
The army has come to see itself as the defender of Pakistan honour, but its record is far from glorious.[39] General Mohammed Yayha Khan - representative If Pakistan is, as many Pakistanis believe, a failed state, then the army must take a share of the blame. Consuming a disproportionate amount of government expenditure, and wielding significant economic as well as political power, even in times of civilian rule the military has interfered in foreign and domestic policy areas.[40] military has interfered in foreign & domestic - policy There have been four military rulers in Pakistan history.[41] The first was General -  Ayub Khan All were more willing to grasp power than to give it up. The first was General Ayub Khan, a Sandhurst-educated paternalist who believed the illiterate Pakistani masses were not ready for Western-style democracy. After 11 years in power, he was forced out of office by mass protests in 1969. As a heavy drinker and habitual womaniser, his successor,[42] Four military rulers in Pakistan - history General Mohammed Yayha Khan, was hardly representative of the people he ruled. He offered hope to the nation by organising Pakistan first-ever national elections. Widely accepted to have been the fairest that have ever occurred in the country, they asserted a Bengali political nationalism unacceptable to Yayha. His response was to send the tanks into East Pakistan in a bloody, yet unsuccessful war.[43] Military Histiry of personal - kent.edu India military support for Bangladeshi independence led directly to Yayha downfall, and a brief period of civilian government under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.[44] Brief period of civilian government - Pakistan Pakistan fourth military (now civilian) ruler, President Pervez Musharraf, is determined to undo Zia ul Haq legacy.[45] President Pervez Musharraf - fourth military  ruler [46] Pakistan publicly opposed the - Islamic militants [47] Having launched the Kargil war - Pak Army He has publicly opposed the Islamic militants, although he has taken mixed steps to challenge them, sending the army into the autonomous and radicalised Tribal Areas along the Afghan border for the first time but then leaving the controversial madrasah (Islamic college) system largely untouched for fear of provoking violent reactions. Having launched the Kargil war himself in 1999, he has continued to make an exception for Islamists fighting the Indians in Kashmir.[48] Fundamental contradiction throughout - rule The army  military record is about as bleak as its political one. From the outset it has been unable to cope with the sheer size of its Indian rival.[49] Military record is about as bleak as - its political Faced with an acute military imbalance, Pakistan first politicians made defence expenditure their top priority. Yet even today Pakistan army is half the size of India , with significantly fewer tanks and aircraft.[50] Pakistan first politician made defence - expenditure Pakistan has had four major military confrontations with India. The 1971 war resulted in Pakistan losing approximately one-fifth of its territory. The other three clashes, in 1947, 1965 and 1999, all took place in Kashmir.[51] Pakistan has  four major - military confrontations On all three occasions Pakistan started fights it was never in a position to win.[52]  Pakistan army  is half the size of - India Army 

Kashmir Dispute

Throughout the British Raj the leaders of the 565 princely states kept nominal control of their territories. [53] princely states kept  control of - their territories For decades this amounted to nothing more than a constitutional nicety because in practice they were subservient to the British. But in 1947 the princely rulers had the power to decide whether they joined India or Pakistan.[54] Princely rulers had the power - to decide The choice was especially difficult for Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir. His state bordered both India and Pakistan. And while he was a Hindu, his population was predominantly Muslim.[55] Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu - and Kashmir [56] The his population was predominantly - Muslim The maharaja was uncertain what do to, but many Pakistanis were determined that the predominantly Muslim Kashmiris should join Pakistan. In October 1947 Pashtun tribesmen from North-West Frontier Province tried to force the issue by invading Kashmir, with the tacit consent of the new Pakistani authorities. But the strategy backfired when the maharaja requested armed assistance from India.[57] The tacit consent of the new - Pakistani authorities As a result of the fighting in 1947, and the crushing defeat of the 1965 war, Pakistan currently occupies around one-third of Kashmir, which it calls Azad (Free) Kashmir, and India occupies the other two-thirds. (The situation is further complicated by the fact that, after 1947,[58] Chinese War, in which India was - heavily defeated. China occupied an area called Aksai Chin in Indian-occupied Kashmir. [59] Pakistani proxies have attempted - to neutralise India objection to this was one of the factors behind the 1962 Indo-Chinese War, in which India was heavily defeated.)[60] Afghanistan and further afield have - tried to force Kashmir remains a highly emotive issue for Pakistan. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif attempt to sack Musharraf as head of the army as a result of the Kargil fiasco led to the coup that brought the general to power  a prime example of the central role Kashmir has come to play in Pakistani politics.[61] Kashmiris are sick of the fighting - Pakistan Each day the newspapers and state-controlled TV pour out propaganda on the issue. For more than 60 years the Kashmiri people have been caught between India and Pakistan intense rivalry. By now most Kashmiris are sick of the fighting and given a choice would probably opt for independence. But with both sides determined to hang on there is very little prospect they will be given that choice.[62] Determined to hang on there is very - little prospect

Domestic Tensions

Domestic politics has undergone many challenges since Pakistani Independence, irrespective of whether the leader of the day arrived through the ballot box or by a coup. Despite the unifying banner of Islam, many of the deepest problems have arisen from different ethnic groups competing for a slice of political and economic power.[63] Challenges since Pakistani - Independence Of the five major ethnic groups in Pakistan (Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Baloch and Mohajirs), the Punjabis have the upper hand. [64] Routinely complain of Punjabi - dominance Theirs is the richest and most populous province and provides most of the army officer corps. All the other national groups routinely complain of Punjabi dominance.[65] Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Baloch - and Mohajirs Gradually, Pakistan traditional inhabitants reasserted themselves and many Mohajirs were forced out of their government jobs. By the 1980s the Mohajirs dreams of forging a new Islamic nation had been replaced by bitter disillusionment expressed in increasingly militant politics. The Mohajirs political party, the Mohajir Quami Movement (MQM), has always denied any involvement in bloodshed,[66] Pakistan traditional inhabitants - reasserted but there is no doubt that the conflict between the Mohajirs and the Sindhis did turn violent.[67] The Mohajirs political party - Pakistan At the height of the troubles in the 1980s and early 1990s,  Karachi  became a byword for ethnic violence.[68] Mohajirs and the Sindhis did - turn violent Pakistan central government did not make a serious attempt to tackle the MQM until 1995, when the army launched a clampdown. It was a brutal campaign with many extrajudicial killings.[69] Pakistan central government did -   serious attempt The MQM has been forced into relative quiescence ever since, although violence again erupted in 2007 with a murderous attack on a political demonstration, allegedly by MQM supporters.[70] Preoccupied by their struggle with - the Mohajirs The strength of Pashtun nationalism has diminished in large part because of the Pashtuns relatively strong representation in Pakistan central institutions.[71] Pashtun nationalism has - diminished in large While the Tribal Areas have been left to stagnate (and become a haven for violent Islamism), the Pashtuns have been particularly active migrants within Pakistan.[72] Pashtuns have been particularly - active migrants The establishment of a large Pashtun community in  Karachi , for example, means many Pashtun families have a direct interest in the stability and continued existence of the Pakistani state.[73] significant challenge  Pakistan central - institutions Despite having had the strongest national movement in 1947, the Pashtuns have never presented a significant challenge to Pakistan central institutions. The reason is clear: to a greater extent than the Sindhis, the Baloch and the Mohajirs, the Pashtuns have been given a share in the country.[74] Pashtuns have been given a share - in the country

Pakistani Judiciary

Pakistan
Pakistan

Supreme Court of Pakistan

Pakistan
Pakistan
The  Supreme Court of Pakistan  was established on 2nd March 1956 under the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,[75] Supreme Court of Pakistan - pakinformation.com 1956.The Supreme Court is the apex Court of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. It is the Court of ultimate appeal and therefore final arbiter of law and the Constitution.[76] Judicial authorities are bound - Supreme Court It exercises original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction.[77] about supreme court  of Pakistan - Information Its judgments/decisions are binding on all other courts in the country. All the executive and the judicial authorities are bound to act in aid of the Supreme Court.[78] About the Pakistan - visitors heaven.com Chief Justice of Supreme Court
  • Mr. Justice Mian Saqib Nisar
Honourable Judges of  Supreme Court of Pakistan [79] Chief Justice of Supreme Court - Pakistan
  1. Mr. Justice Asif Saeed Khan Khosa
  2. Mr. Justice Ejaz Afzal Khan
  3. Mr. Justice Gulzar Ahmad Khan
  4. Mr. Justice Sheikh Azmat Saeed
  5. Mr. Justice Mushir Alam
  6. Mr. Justice Dost Muhammad Khan
  7. Mr. Justice Umar Ata Bandial
  8. Mr. Justice Qazi Faez Isa
  9. Mr. Justice Maqbool Baqar
  10. Mr. Justice Manzoor Ahmad Malik
  11. Mr. Justice Sardar Tariq Masood
  12. Mr. Justice Faisal Arab
  13. Mr. Justice Ijaz ul Ahsan
  14. Mr. Justice Mazhar Alam Khan Miankhel
  15. Mr. Justice Sajjad Ali Shah

Lahore High Cout

Lahore High Court is the highest judicial institution of Punjab,  Lahore  High Court, located in Lahore, the capital of Punjab Province. The High Court of Lahore have its benches in  Rawalpindi  ,  Multan  and  Bahawalpur .[80] Honourable Judges of Lahore -   High Court [81] Lahore High Court, located - in Lahore [82] The High Court of  Lahore  have - its benches

Sindh High Court

Sindh High Court is the highest judicial institution of  Sindh  ,Sindh High Court, located in Karachi, the capital of Sindh Province.[83] Information about Sindh High Court - Sindh Mr. Justice Ahmad Ali Shaikh is the Chief Justice of Sindh High Court . The High Court of Sindh have its benches in  Hyderabad  ,  Sukkar   and  Larkana .[84] Honourable Judges of Sindh - High Court [85] The High Court of Sindh have -   its benches

Peshawar High Court

Peshawar High Court is the highest judicial institution of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,Peshawar High Court, located in  Peshawar , the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. [86] Chief Justice of Peshawar High Court - Peshawar The High Court of  Peshawar  have its benches in  Abbotabad  ,  Dera Ismail Khan  ,  Bannu  and Mingora.[87] Honourable Judges of Peshawar - High Court [88] The High Court of Peshawar have - its benches

Balochistan High court

Balochistan High Court is the highest judicial institution of  Balochistan , Balochistan High Court, located in Quetta, the capital of Balochistan Province. [89] Information about Balochistan - High Court The High Court of Balochistan was established on 1st December, 1976 .[90] Justice Muhammad Noor Meskanzai - Balochistan

Islamabad High Court

The  Islamabad  High Court was established under  Islamabad  High Court Act, 2010 after the 18th amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan. Islamabad High Court, located in Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan.[91] Islamabad High Court - . pakinformation.com [92] Information about Islamabad - High Court

Federal Shariat Court

Federal Shariat Court is is a court which has the power to examine and determine whether the laws of the country comply with Shari'a law, [93] Information  Federal Shariat - Court of Pakistan Federal Shariat Court is located in  Islamabad , the capital of Pakistan. The Federal Shariat Court was established by the President Order No.1 of 1980 as incorporated in the Constitution of Pakistan.[94] Honourable Judges of Federal Shariat - Islamabad

Religion

Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other (inc. Sikh) 3% [95] data-driven blog to provide -   information

Islam

  • Islam is practised by the majority of Pakistanis and governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives.
  • Among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day - at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening.
  • Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed.
  • During the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing.[96] Religion & Beliefs of Pakistan   -    About

Hinduism

Contrary to the sensational media headlines about declining Hindu population in Pakistan,[97] Hinduisam in Pakistan -   www.riazhaq.com the fact is that Hindu birth rate is significantly higher than the country's national average.[98] Pakistani Hindu Population -   in the World Although Hindus make up only 1.9% of Pakistan's population, it is among the worlds fastest growing Hindu communities today, growing faster than the Hindu populations in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Indonesia.[99] Although Hindus 1.9% of - Pakistan's population Pakistan Census data. For 1931 and 1941, the figures are for West Pakistan in undivided India. [100] Hindu population of the areas that - now constitute For 1951 and 1961, the figures are for West Pakistan in undivided Pakistan. Data for 1971 could not be accessed.Hindu population of the areas that now constitute Pakistan was 15% in 1931 India Census. It declined to 14% in 1941 India Census. Then first Pakistan Census in 1951 showed it was 1.3% after the massive cross-border migration of both Hindus and Muslims in 1947.[101] migration of both Hindus and Muslims - in 1947 Since 1951, the Hindu population of what is now Pakistan has grown from 1.3% to 1.9% now.[102] All religion of Pakistan -   country studies.us

Christianity

Pakistanis a country which is rich in culture and religion. Islam is the major religion but along with it there are other minorities like Christians, Hindu, Sikh, Ahmadis, Chitrals, and Afghans etc.[103] Islam major religion  other minorities - Christianity [104] In Pakistan www.christiansin - pakistan.com Christians are the largest minority community inPakistan. [105] Statistics of Christians in different - Pakistan They constitute about 1.6%of thePakistan population.Christianity in Asia has its roots in the very inception of Christianity, which originated with Jesus Christ, and then spread through the missionary work of his apostles. [106] North-West Frontier Province Pakistan - 0.21% Christianity first expanded in the Levant, taking roots in the major cities such as Jerusalem and Antioch. According to tradition, further eastward expansion occurred via the preaching of Saint Thomas the Apostle, who established Christianity in the Parthian Empire (Iran) and Pakistan.[107] Federally Administered Tribal Areas - 0.07%

Transport

Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan is home to more than 180 million people. [108] Transport system of pakistan -   awami web.com They are involved in different segments of the economy, whether it is the primary sector producing crops and livestock produce for the people or in manufacturing and tertiary sectors, everyone is busy doing one thing or another. [109] Current Transportation System in -   Pakistan In order for people to get around, land, sea and air transport is available. [110] More than 180 million people of - Pakistan The road and rail network plays a very important part. [111] The road and rail network plays -   important part The road network is the backbone of trade and commerce in the country.[112] The domestic transportation system -   developed

Motorways and Highways

Pakistan
Pakistan
The national highway and motorway together form an extensive network. From the deep-water Port Qasim in  Karachi  to the Khunjerab pass in the northern Karakoram Range and Taftan in the western-most zone in Balochistan, the road network connects all areas together. More than 8909km of roads provide easy access between the remotest cities and towns of the country. In addition, these facilitate not only the transport of freight but also the travel of people for business and leisure.The domestic transportation system was not well developed at independence. Railroads were the main means of transportation, but the network in West Pakistan had been constructed under the assumption that the area formed part of a larger subcontinental economic and political entity and was not suited to the needs of the new nation. Considerable development was necessary to improve links between  Karachi , Pakistan's first capital and the country's principal port and commercial center, and Punjab, where  Islamabad  was established as the new administrative capital in 1962.

Public Transport System

Pakistan
Pakistan
The public transport system is operating in all major towns and cities of the country. There are wagons, rickshaws and taxis to supplement the bus systems.A recent addition to  Lahore  transport system is a new Metro bus system. The city was in dire need of having a mass transit system along one of its most heavily used route. Rapid bus transit system constructed with Turkish collaboration is a 27km bus track stretching from Shahdrah Town to Gajju Mata along the main Ferozpur Road. There is a state-of-the-art electronic ticketing system and turnstiles. There are plans to add two more commercial lines and expand the route to other areas of the city.Moreover, the rail network stretches along the length and width of the country. On a recent visit to China, the desire to built a high-speed rail from  Karachi  to  Peshawar  with Chinese cooperation was expressed by our premier, if then is built according to plan then the ease of inter-city travel will increase manifold.

Inland Water Transport System

Pakistan is a country having an expansive river and canal network. At present this network is not utilized as an inland cargo water transport system. However, initial feasibility studies show that there is great potential for such development. This would result in economical transport of goods up-country. In addition to significantly reduced cargo transport costs, the saving on fuel used for transport can be utilized for critical power generation.Shipping capacity decreased in the 1980s. The merchant fleet, almost all operated by the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation (PNSC), consisted in 1992 of twenty-two vessels, down from fifty vessels in 1982. Approximately half the fleet is more than fifteen years old and is unsuited to present needs. The PNSC handled 2.74 million tons of cargo in the last six months of 1991, compared with 2.77 million tons during the corresponding period in 1990. In 1992, in line with its privatization policy, the government invited applications for setting up a private shipping sector and promised to operate the PNSC on a commercial basis.

Airline System

Pakistan
Pakistan
In addition to roads and railways, Pakistan transport systems also facilitate air travel. There are numerous domestic and around 11 international airports. These connect Pakistan to the international air routes and also ease travel via land routes within the country.In early 1994, the major airline was the government-controlled Pakistan International Airlines (PIA).  PIA  had a fleet of forty-seven aircraft in March 1993, of which fifteen were wide-bodied Boeing 747s and A300-B4s. The  PIA  network includes forty-five international and thirty-five domestic airports. There are international airports at  Karachi ,  Islamabad ,  Lahore ,  Peshawar , and  Quetta . Several small private airlines began operating domestic routes in 1993. One of these carriers, Shaheen Air International, also operates international cargo routes and plans to provide international passenger service in 1994 or 1995.

Railroad System

Pakistan
Pakistan
The railroad system is government owned and covers 8,775 kilometers (see fig. 9). In FY 1992 there were 753 locomotives and 34,851 freight wagons. The system usually runs at a loss. In mid-1992 the most profitable route, that between  Lahore  and  Faisalabad , was privatized. It is expected that the government will attempt to privatize other rail routes, but the  Lahore ,  Faisalabad  line was renationalized in September 1993 when the private operator failed to make a profit.Now the railway's share of inland traffic is only 10% for passengers and 4% for freight traffic. Personal transportation dominated by the automobiles, the total rail track decreased from 8,775 kilometres (5,453 miles) in 199091 to 7,791 kilometres (4,841 miles) in 2011.


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