Jammu & Kashmir is a state in northern India, often denoted by the acronym J&K. It is located mostly in the Himalayan mountains, and shares borders with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south. Jammu & Kashmir is the jeweled crown of India with extravagant beauty of Himalayas. RajTaringini, the chronology of the Kashmir Kings written by Kalhana eulogises the beauty of Kashmir as “Kasmira Parvati Paroksh; Tat Swami ch Maheswara”. Meaning Kashmir is as beautiful as Goddess Parvati manifest and its owner is Lord Shiva Himself.
|Other spoken:||Kashmiri, Dogri, Hindi, Punjabi, Ladakhi|
|HDI:||Increase 0.601 (medium)|
|HDI rank:||17th (2005)|
|ISO 3166 code :||IN-JK|
|Population (2011) Rank:||19th|
|Population (2011) Density:||56/km2 (150/sq mi)|
|Time zone:||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|Admission to Union:||26 October 1947|
|Capital:||Srinagar (Summer) Jammu (Winter)|
|Governor:||Narinder Nath Vohra|
|Chief Minister:||Mehbooba Mufti (JKPDP)|
|Deputy Chief :||Nirmal Kumar Singh (BJP)|
|Legislature :||Bicameral (87 + 36 seats)|
|Parliamentary :||Rajya Sabha 4|
|Constituency :||Lok Sabha 6|
|Area Total:||222,236 km2 (85,806 sq mi)|
|Population (2011) Total:||12,541,302|
|Music & Dance of Jammu & Kashmir:||Kashmiris are known to enjoy their music in its various local forms and the dress of both sexes is quite colorful. The Dumhal is a famous dance in Kashmir, performed by men of the Wattal region. The women perform the Rouff, another folk dance.|
|Rivers of Jammu & Kashmir :||Main Rivers in Jammu and Kashmir are Galquit River, Jhelum River, Shajsqem River, Shikar(South) River, Zanskar river and Khurana River|
History of Jammu and Kashmir
By the early 19th century, the Kashmir valley had passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan, and four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghans, to the conquering Sikh armies. Earlier, in 1780, after the death of Ranjit Deo, the Raja of Jammu, the kingdom of Jammu (to the south of the Kashmir valley) was captured by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of Lahore and afterwards, until 1846, became a tributary to the Sikh power. Ranjit Deo’s grandnephew, Gulab Singh, subsequently sought service at the court of Ranjit Singh, distinguished himself in later campaigns, especially the annexation of the Kashmir valley by the Sikhs army in 1819, and, for his services, was created Raja of Jammu in 1820. With the help of his officer, Zorawar Singh, Gulab Singh soon captured Ladakh and Baltistan, regions to the east and north-east of Jammu.
British era – In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out, Two treaties were concluded. By the first the State of Lahore (i.e. West Punjab) ; by the second the British made over to Gulab Singh for (Rupees) 75 lakhs all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the east of Indus and west of Ravi” (i.e. the Vale of Kashmir). Soon after Gulab Singh’s death in 1857, his son, Ranbir Singh, added the emirates of Hunza, Gilgit and Nagar to the kingdom .
Line of Control
When the UN imposed a cease-fire on 1 January 1949, the territory of the State of Jammu and Kashmir was divided roughly in half by the line known as the LoC (Line of Control) or LoAC (Line of Actual Control). Pakistan controlled the northern areas of Gilgit and Baltistan as well as Azad Kashmir, and a tiny portion of the Vale. India held Jammu, Ladakh, and the populous Vale, as well as a small portion of Poonch.
The negotiators did not extend the line because there had been no fighting in Kashmir’s northernmost reaches, but merely mentioned that the line should continue thence north to the glaciers.
Karakoram Mountain Area
The Karakoram mountain area, including the Siachen and Baltoro glaciers, is not only uninhabited, it is hazardous; this is why no fighting occurred there in 1948. Still, since 1984, India and Pakistan have engaged in an ongoing turf war over this area with soldiers at heights exceeding 17,200 ft. On the mountains and glaciers, more soldiers have died from the weather, terrain, and altitude than from fighting. This is part of the legacy of the conflict over Kashmir.
End Of War
Since the end of the war in 1949, no attempts at mediation have succeeded in bringing the two sides together. In fact, the positions taken by Nehru and Jinnah in 1947 are essentially the same positions each country puts forth today. There has never been a plebiscite to determine the wishes of the Kashmiris regarding accession. India has claimed that legislative elections were sufficient to serve as a plebiscite proving that Kashmiris wish to remain in India. This might be true except for some important considerations of the details in Kashmir. First, only one set of elections held in Jammu and Kashmir was even arguably fair: the elections of 1977. Other than the elections of 1977, there has been widespread election rigging and intimidation of voters. Even the 1977 election, it is argued by some, was accompanied by brutality and intimidation. Few opposition parties made it. Thus, elections did not provide an opportunity for the Kashmiri populace to express its opinions; there were not enough options on the ballot between which to choose.Second, participation in the Indian political system did not necessarily imply acceptance of it. Rather, it indicated that candidates understood the reality of the situation in Jammu and Kashmir and had a willingness to follow the rules in order to gain power. Sheikh Abdullah, for example, seemed, in many ways, to have been a puppet of New Delhi.
The Armed Forces JAMMU KASHMIR Special Powers Act 1990
The Armed Forces (Jammu & Kashmir) Special Powers Ordinance, introduced in July, 1990, was later enacted by the Parliament of India and enforced on 10th September, 1990.The armed forces can be used in aid of civil authorities and even a non commissioned officer can search any place, stop/seize any vehicle, fire at any person (and kill), or arrest him even on the basis of suspicion with no obligation to inform him of the grounds thereof. It gives the Indian security forces sweeping powers that facilitate arbitrary arrests and detention and extra judicial executions as well as destruction of property.
The provisions of the black law are further violated in the occupied Kashmir by the security forces. Under the law, an arrested person is to be handed over to the nearest police station. But it is seldom done. However, factually the security forces are inflicting atrocities on the Kashmiris without informing the civil administration. The State government has proved ineffective in controlling the Indian security forces, who have unleashed a reign of terror in occupied territory.
Indian Telegraph Act
The Indian Telegraph Act authorizes the surveillance of communications, including monitoring telephone conversations and intercepting personal mail, in case of public emergency or “in the interest of the public safety or tranquility”.
Besides the afore mentioned draconian laws, the following are also in force:-
- Enemy Agent Ordinance 1948
- The Egress and Internal Movement (Control) Ordinance, 1948
- Prevention of Unlawful Activities, 1963
- Prevention of Subversion and Sabotage Act, 1965
Economy of Jammu Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir’s economy is mostly dependent on farming and animal husbandry. Majority of the population of the state depends on agriculture. Paddy, wheat and maize are the major crops. Barley, bajra and jowar are cultivated in some parts. Gram is grown in Ladakh. Though small, the manufacturing and services sector is growing rapidly. Tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri economy. Although the tourism economy in the Kashmir Valley has been hit by the terrorism threat, Jammu and Ladakh continue to remain as popular tourist destinations. The Wood in Kashmir is also used to make quality Cricket bats and as they are popularly known as Kashmir Willow. Handicrafts from Jammu and Kashmir have demand from both inside and outside the country. Coal, gypsum, and limestone are the major minerals produced in the state.
The cultural, ethnic, and linguistic composition of Jammu and Kashmir varies across the state by region. About two-thirds of the population adheres to Islam, a greater proportion than in any other Indian state; Hindus constitute most of the remaining third. There also are small minorities of Sikhs and Buddhists. Urdu is the state’s official language.
The Jammu region
Jammu, winter capital of the maharajas (the former Hindu rulers of the region) and second largest city in the state, was historically the seat of the Dogra dynasty. More than two-thirds of the region’s residents are classified as Hindu. Most of Jammu’s Hindus live in the southeastern portion of the region and are closely related to the Punjabi-speaking peoples in Punjab state; many speak the Dogri language. The majority of the state’s Sikhs also live in the Jammu region. To the northwest, however, the proportion of Muslims increases, with Muslims making up a dominant majority in the area around the western town of Punch.
The population of Jammu and Kashmir continued to increase fairly rapidly from the late 20th into the early 21st century, growing by nearly one-fourth between 2001 and 2011. The state has remained largely rural, nearly three-fourths of its people living in towns and villages, but urbanization has increased. Nearly two-fifths of the urban population resides in the Srinagar region. The sex ratio is relatively poor, about 890 females per 1,000 males at the 2011 census, lower than it was in the 2001 census (900 females per 1,000 males).
Although facilities for visitors to Jammu and Kashmir have improved considerably since the late 20th century, the state’s potential in the tourist sector has remained generally untapped. Nevertheless, tourism has made a significant socioeconomic impact on Ladakh, which was largely isolated from outsiders until the 1970s. In addition to historical and religious sites, visitor destinations include the snow-sports centre at Gulmarg in the northern Pir Panjal Range west of Srinagar, the hot mineral springs at Chumathang near Leh, and the state’s many lakes and rivers. Mountain trekking is popular from July through September.
Education in Jammu Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the only state where education is free up to university stage. Seasonal schools have been opened for people in the hilly areas and for the scheduled castes. Yet the state is educationally backward. Against the national literacy rate of 75.96% for males and 54.28% for females, the state has a literacy figure of only 65.74% for males and 41.82% for females respectively. On the technical education side, there are two regional engineering colleges in the state. In addition, there are four polytechnics to impart vocational training. District institutes of education have been opened in all the districts of the state to provide extensive and intensive training to the teachers.
Indian occupation troops kill three more Kashmiris
SRINAGAR: Indian security forces opened fire on curfew-defying protesters in the occupied Kashmir , killing three and bringing the number of people killed in a wave of unrest to 55.
The recent protests erupted in July over the killing of Burhan Wani, 22, a commander of the Hizbul Mujahideen.In Friday’s shootings, two protesters were killed in the west of Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir’s summer capital, and one in the north of the city after crowds began attacking police and paramilitary positions following Friday prayers, a senior police officer said.
More than 100 people were wounded including several police officers, the police officer said, speaking on the condition he was not named because he was not authorised to speak to the media.The Muslim-majority region of Kashmir has been divided between Pakistan and India since shortly after the two countries were carved out of Britain in 1947. Both claim the territory as theirs in full and they have fought two of their three wars over the region.
The weeks-long unrest has further strained relations between the two countries and this week threatened to overshadow a regional forum meeting in Islamabad that was attended by India’s interior minister.
Food of Jammu Kashmir
The Kashmiris are passionate about their food and known for spicy meat dishes and the delicate flavor of saffron. Meat being the staple, most of the special dishes have mutton as a major ingredient. Nahari, a special breakfast dish, is a stew of trotters and tongue, seasoned with cassia buds, cardamom, sandalwood powder, vetiver roots and dried rose petals. The sheermal bread goes well with this stew. The methi maz, on the other hand, is a superb blend of mild-tasting entrails and strong-flavored fenugreek leaves. Tracing its roots to Kashmir is the ever-popular rogan josh, which is spiced lamb cooked in yogurt and aniseed, a spice not very commonly used in other regional cuisines. While tabak maz is spiced ribs fried to crispiness, for the qorma, a lightly sour creamy dish, shoulder of lamb and tail are cooked in milk and dried apricots, and the yakhni uses curd as the base for its sauce. Rista, the first gravy dish to make its appearance in a wazwan, is a meatball of pounded lamb that is silky in texture. After a whole range of dishes comes the gushtaba, a giant meatball made of the same, pounded meat, cooked in a curd based gravy. A semolina pudding sometimes follows the main courses of the wazwan, but there are not too many sweet dishes in the Kashmiri repertoire. However, a different preparation, served to freshen the mouth after the wazwan, is the gota-a mixture of aniseed, sugar candy, bits of supari, coarsely grated coconut and kernels of muskmelon seeds.
Indian forces launch massive operation in Occupied Kashmir
SRINAGAR: Indian forces cordoned off more than 20 villages in Shopian district of Occupied Kashmir, Indian media reported in the wake of a surge in rebel attacks on the occupying forces in recent weeks.According to NDTV, more than 3,000 personnel of the Indian Army, Central Reserve Police Force and Jammu and Kashmir police were involved in the search operation launched early morning.
“Over 30 companies of Indian forces have besieged villages in Shopian since 3 am looking for armed fighters,” IoK local Faysal tweeted.
Indian army claims it blocks infiltration by militants
SRINAGAR: The Indian army claimed to have blocked an attempt by militants to cross into occupied Kashmir, days after a deadly raid on a military base in the territory.“A group of 10-12 terrorists attempted to infiltrate the Uri sector. They were intercepted and the infiltration bid was foiled,” said army spokesman Colonel Rajesh Kalia, referring to the same area where Sunday’s attack took place.The Press Trust of India news agency said 10 suspected militants had been killed in the incident but this could not immediately be confirmed.
On September 18, militants attacked an Indian army brigade headquarters near Line of Control, killing at least 17 soldiers in the most deadly such attack in the northern region of Kashmir since 2014.Four “fidayeen” – or commando-style gunmen willing to fight to the death – had been killed after penetrating the base in Uri near the Line of Control, an Indian army spokesman said.The raid comes amid heightened tension in Occupied Kashmir, which has faced more than two months of protests following the July 8 killing of a popular freedom fighter Burhan Wani.
At least 78 civilians have been killed and thousands injured in street clashes with the Indian security forces, who are violating human rights by using excessive force including shotguns that fire pellets that have blinded people.
Human Rights Violations Perpetrated By Indian Security Forces in Indian Occupied Kashmir
FROM JANUARY, 1989 TO MAY, 2006
- Killings 90,986
- Houses/Shops Destroyed 105,182
- Children Orphaned 106,683
- Women Molested 9,658
- Women Widowed 22,406
- Innocent Kashmiris in Custody 3,288
FROM JANUARY, 1989 TO SEPTEMBER, 2016 – Updated)
- Total Killings * 94,548
- Custodial Killings 7,073
- Civilian arrested 137,469
- Structures destroyed/demaged 107,043
- Women Widowed 22,826
- Children Orphaned 107,591
- Women molested 10,717
Kashmiris on both sides of the Line of Control and across the world are observing Indian Republic Day, today, as Black Day in protest against India’s continued denial of their right to self-determination. According to Radio Pakistan, the day will be marked with a complete strike in Occupied Kashmir and anti-India demonstrations and rallies in world capitals. After Friday Prayer The Joint Resistance Leadership, in a statement issued in Srinagar, urged people to hold peaceful demonstrations and rallies across the length and breadth of the territory . Meanwhile, protest rallies and demonstrations held across Azad Kashmir to highlight brutalities of Indian forces in the occupied valley.