Muhammad Musa
Muhammad Musa

General Musa Khan Hazara was the Commander in Chief of Pakistan’s Army. He succeeded Field Marshal Ayub Khan, who assumed the Presidency of Pakistan.He is also a Four-star rank army general, politician, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Army, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1958 until 1966.

TitleDescription
Personal
Name:Muhammad Musa
In Urdu:محمد موسی
Famous As:Four-Star Rank Army General
Nationality:Pakistani
Residence:British Subject (1908–1947), Pakistan (1947–1991)
Education:Graduate
Religion:Islam
Profession:Politics
Service/branch :British Indian Army, Pakistan Army (1947–1976)
Years of service :1926–1966
Rank :General
Unit :4th Hazara Pioneers, FF Regiment
Battles/wars:World War II,Indo-Pakistan War of 1947, Indo-Pakistan War of 1965
Awards :Hilal-i-Quaid-e-Azam,Hilal-e-Pakistan
Born
Date:20 October 1908
Place:Quetta, Baluchistan, British India
Family
Parents:Yazdan Khan (Father)
Relatives:Yazdan Khan
Died
Date:12 March 1991
Rest Place:Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran
Career
Political Party:Independent Pakistan Muslim League (1985–91)
Serve As:Leader
In Office
Role:Governor of West Pakistan
Dates:18 September 1966 – 20 March 1969
President: Ayub Khan
Preceded By:Amir Mohammad
Succeeded By:Yusuf Haroon
In Office 2
Role:Governor of Balochistan
Dates:17 December 1985 – 12 March 1991
President:Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Zia-ul-Haq
Prime Minister:Muhammad Junejo, Benazir Bhutto, Nawaz Sharif
Preceded By:Gul Jogezai
Succeeded By:Lieutenant General K. K. Afridi

Four-star Rank Army General Commander in Chief of Pakistan ArmyWar 1965Governor of BalochistanArmy Commander in Chief

Biography

He was the eldest son of Sardar Yazdan Khan, born in a Hazara Shia Muslim family in Quetta, he was from the Sardar family of the Hazara tribe in Balochistan, Pakistan. He was a Naik (Junior Non-Commissioned Officer) in the 106th Hazara Pioneers and went to the Indian Military Academy in Dehra Dun as a cadet and graduated with the first batch of the British Indian commissioned officers on 1 February 1935. He was posted to the 6th Royal Battalion,the 13th Frontier Force Rifles as a Platoon Commander in 1936. He took part in the Waziristan Operations in 1936-1938 and in World War II, where he served in North Africa.[1]  Biography 

Senior Appointments

He served with distinction in the Pakistani Army and rose to the rank of the commander in chief of Pakistani Armed Forces during President Mohammad Ayub Khan’s regime (1958–1969). His promotion to commander-in-chief (he succeeded Field Marshal Ayub Khan) saw suppression of seniors: Maj Gen Sher Ali Khan Pataudi, Maj Gen Latif Khan and Maj Gen Adam Khan, all Sandhurst graduates of 1933. General Muhammad Musa Inter College Quetta was named after him.[2] Appointsment

Political Career

After General Musa retired from the army, President Ayub Khan appointed him as the Governor of West Pakistan from 1967 to 1969. After serving for a few years, he retired and settled in Karachi. In 1985, he was once again involved in politics. He was appointed Governor of Balochistan Province by the then President General Zia-ul-Haq. In Balochistan, Governor General Musa dissolved the provincial assembly in December 1988. However, the Balochistan High Courtrestored the assembly amid public condemnation of Governor’s move. The step towards dissolving the assembly was believed to have been taken with the consent of the President and Prime Minister.[3]  Political Career 

Career with Pakistan Army

General Mohammed Musa commanded the Army in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, and had overall responsibility for operations throughout the conflict. As Army Chief, he was criticised for not anticipating an assault across the international border. However he was given credit for blunting the Indian offensive towards Sialkot during the Battle of Chawinda. He has narrated the events and experiences of the war in his book “My Version”. In the book he has given accounts of the secret war that was going on in Kashmir between the two countries, long before the real war actually began.General Muhammad Musa is the author of his autobiography, Jawan to General in which he describes his lifetime experiences from a simple foot-soldier rising to become a general.[4]  Career with Pakistan Army 

Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

General Mohammed Musa commanded the Army in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, and had overall responsibility for operations throughout the conflict. As Army Chief, he was criticised for not anticipating an assault across the international border. However he was given credit for blunting the Indian offensive towards Sialkot during the Battle of Chawinda. He has narrated the events and experiences of the war in his book “My Version”. In the book he has given accounts of the secret war that was going on in Kashmir between the two countries, long before the real war actual began.

Author of his Autobiography

General Musa Khan is the author of his autobiography, Jawan to General in which he describes his lifetime experiences from a simple foot-soldier rising to become a general.

Awards

Civilian Awards

  1. Hilal-i-Quaid-e-Azam
  2. Hilal-e-Pakistan

Military Awards

  1. Hilal-e-Imtiaz
  2. Hilal-i-Jurat
  3. Order of the British Empire
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