Noor-ud DIn Saleem (Al-Sultan al-‘Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Khushru-i-Giti Panah, Abu’l-Fath Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi) was the fourth emperor of Mughal dynasty. He is also famous for his eternal love story with a dancing girl named Anarkali who was famous for her blushing beauty at that time. Jahangir is is empirical name that he adopted when he took over the throne after his father demise, emperor Akbar.
|Name:||Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim|
|In Urdu:||مرزا نورالدین بیگ محمد سلیم|
|Date:||31 August 1569|
|Place:||Fatehpur Sikri, Mughal Empire|
|Spouse:||Manbhawati Bai Jagat Gosaini Sahib-i-Jamal Begum Malika Jahan Nur-un-Nissa Begum Khas Mahal Karamsi Bai other wives|
|Consort:||Saliha Banu Begum Nur Jahan|
|Children:||Khusrau Mirza, Parviz Mirza, Shah Jahan I, Shahryar Mirza, Jahandar Mirza, Sultan-un-Nissa Begum, Daulat-un-Nissa Begum ,Bahar Banu Begum ,Begum Sultan Begum ,Iffat Banu Begum|
|Siblings :||Hassan Mirza ,Hussain Mirza ,Khanum Sultan, Begum Sultan, Murad Mirza, Daniyal Mirza, Shakr-un-Nissa Begum, Aram Banu Begum, Shams-un-Nissa Begum ,Mahi Begum|
|Date:||27 October 1605|
|Rest Place:||Fatehpur Sikri, Agra, Mughal Empire (present-day Uttar Pradesh, India)|
Jahangir was the fourth emperor of the Mughal dynasty who reigned over India from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. His reign is characterized by a consolidation of the Empire, he forms a transition between the conquests of his predecessors and the apogee of the Empire represented by his successors.Named initially “Salim Nûr ud-Din Muhammad”, his name of emperor “Jahangir” means “Master of the World”. He was born August 31, 1569 in Fatehpur-Sikri, a city created from scratch by his father to serve as capital, a city that was created following his victory over Goujerat and was abandoned 10 years later due to a lack of ‘water. His father, Akbar, was the emperor who established the administrative foundations of the Empire. his mother, Miriam Zamani, was a Hindu, proof of the open-mindedness of his father who chose his favorite wife among one of the many minorities of his territory, of a different religious denomination (Moghols are Muslims).
As a young prince, Salim was no different from his predecessors (or his successors, for that matter): He wanted to take over the Empire while his father was still there. History tells us that it was a common thing, each prince having tried, more or less aggressively, to overthrow his father. He was particularly active. At the age of 22, in 1591, he left for Allabahad and rebelled against his father, throwing his troops against him. Stopped in his approach, he started again ten years later, in 1601, still without success. In 1602 he proclaimed himself king and had a coin coined, one of the symbols of the independence of a kingdom. He also had Akbar’s secretary assassinated by a relative whom he would reward when he came to the throne. For all these facts his father Akbar had him arrested, but father and son came together through the widow of the Regent’s widow, a man who had ruled the Empire in the days of Akbar’s youth. In 1605 Akbar died, leaving the throne to his son.
- Jahangir traveled from place to place with a caravan with as many as 700 elephants. He built a palace and elaborate garden in Lahore with “soul-searching places.” His courtiers also built palaces and gardens. According to some reports his kingdom was governed by his intelligent and able and very beautiful wife, Nur Jahan.
- Jahangir loved jewels and expensive gifts that his subjects gave him, but he had the obnoxious habit of tallying up the worth of presents given to him. He once recorded that elephants, Persian robes and jeweled vessels given to him were worth 150,000 rupees. Even more obnoxious he kept the best presents for himself and returned the rest.
- Jahangir liked to hunt. He boasted of killing 17,167 animals, including 13,964 birds before he was 50. Scouts were hired to find tigers and round up deer for him to kill. But at the same time he was a great animal lover. He wept inconsolably as the death of a pet deer. He once was so upset to see his elephants spray themselves with cold water on cold days he ordered their water to be heated.
- Jahangir was also a naturalist. He dissected the internal organs of his prey. He wrote that unlike humans “young elephants are born with their feet first.” He also wrote about the mating behavior of cranes and noticed pied-crested cuckoos deposited their eggs in the nest of other birds who took care of the eggs.
- Jahangir suffered from asthma. He passed the time dissecting insects and engaging in long conversations with Sufi holymen. When he was angry he could be quite cruel. There are stories of him having victims impaled, flayed alive and ripped into pieces by elephants. Describing the punishment given to men who accidently frightened away the game while he was on a hunting trip, he wrote in memoir: “In a great rage I ordered them to kill the groom on the spot and to hamstring the bearers and mount them on asses and parade them through the camp so that no one should again have the boldness to do such a thing.”
Jahangir and his wives
Jahangirs First Wife was Amers Manbhawati Bai
Man Bai aka Manbhawati aka Shah Begum was Jahangir’s first wife. She was Jodha Bai’s niece, Maan Singh’s sister and Salim’s first cousin. Salim married Man Bai at the age of 16 on February 13, 1585. At the time of this marriage, his mansab was raised from 10,000 to 12,000. 2 years later in 1587, this Rajput Begum of Salim gave birth to Salim’s first-born Prince Khusrau Mirza.
Manbai committed suicide in the year 1604 (Akbar was alive then) due to the differences between her son and husband. It is said that Akbar wanted Khusrau to become the next Emperor since he was frustrated by Salim’s ill-behaviour. However, Salim became the next heir and later when Khusrau revolted on the basis of Akbar’s will, he was blinded by Jahangir.
Jahangirs Second Wife was Phul Begum
In the same year, Salim was married to Phul Begum – Rajkumari Rattan Bai Sahiba. She was the daughter of Dhameri (later Nurpur) King – Raja Basu. Their marriage took place in Kangra, Himachal Pradesh. Nurpur was initially called as ‘Dhameri’ but Nur Jahan (Jahangir’s wife) loved the beauty of the place so much that the people of Dhameri changed the name of the place from Dhameri to Nurpur in her honour (political plan actually!) Nurpur though was founded in 11th century flourished only during 1580 to 1613, the time of Jahangir’s father-in-law Raja Basu Dev. No wonder, he enjoyed a mansab of 1500 under Akbar, which was furher increased to 3500 by Jahangir.
Jahangirs Third Wife was Marwars Jodh Bai
Jodh Bai aka Jagat Gosain aka Manavati Baiji Lal Sahiba (later Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani) was Jahangir’s third wife. Daughter of Raja Udai Singh Rathor of Marwar, she married Salim in 1586 and gave birth to Jahangir’s third son Khurram (later Shah Jahan) in the year 1594. Jodh Bai’s marriage took place in her father’s place in Fathepur Sikri. She is also known as Taj Bibi. It is said that she was Salim’s favorite wife, and he loved her the most.Some people also believe that Jodha (Akbar’s wife) is James Todd’s mistake who wrongly addressed Heer Kunwar as Jodha Bai. This in a way can be true because Jodha Bai (lady of Jodhpur) was Jodh Bai, Salim’s wife and Akbar’s daughter-in-law, not Akbar’s wife. Jodha (Akbar’s wife) was from Amer (Jaipur) and not Jodhpur.
Jahangir Married his 4th and 5th wife in Lahore
On 7th July 1586 Jahangir married a daughter of Maharaja of Bikaner – Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sri Rai Singhji. In the same month, he married daughter of Kashghar Sultan ‘Abu Said Khan Jagatai. Her name was Malika-i-Shikar Begum Sahiba. She died after 6 years in 1592.
Jahangirs 6th wife was Shahib-i-Jamal Begum Mother of his second son Parviz Mirza
Shahib-i-Jamal was daughter of Khwaja Hassan of Herat. Khwaja Hassan was a cousin of Zain Khan Koka, son of Atgah Khan (Akbar’s foster father). It is said that Salim fell in love with her and so married her in the same year 1586. A talented Civil Engineer the title of Shahib-i-Jamal (meaning Mistress of beauty) was bestowed on her by Akbar himself. She gave birth to Jahangir’s second son Parviz Mirza in the year 1589. She died in 1599 when Parviz was just 10.
She was also the mother of Jahangir’s 5th son – Sultan Shahariyar Mirza who was born within a month of his half-brother Jahandhar. He was married to Nur Jahan’s daughter Ladli Begum from her first husband. Later, he was killed by his own brother Shah Jahan with the help of his father-in-law who was also Nur Jahan’s brother.
7th to 11th Wife of Jahangir
In the year 1587, Jahangir married daughter of Rukn-ud-Daula, Malika-i-Jahan Begum Sahiba. She was the mother of his 4th son Shahzada Jahandar Mirza who was born in 1596. His eight wife was a daughter of Raja Darya Malbhas.
In October 1590, he married his ninth wife Zohra Begum Sahiba, a daughter of Mirza Sanjar Hazara. A year later in 1591, Jahangir married another Rajput princess, a daughter of Raja Shri Kesho Das Rathore of Mertia. Her nane was Rajkumari Shri Karamsi Baiji Lall Sahiba. In the same year, Jahangir married his 11th wife, a daughter of Dost Muhammad Khwaja Jahan-i-Kabuli.
12th to 20th wife of Jahangir
His 12th wife was a sister of Abiya Kashmiri. 13th was Kanwal Rani, youngest daughter of ‘Ali Sher Khan from Ladakh, Kashmir. Fourteenth was a daughter of Sayyid Mubaraq Khan Baihaqi of Kashmir. 15th wife of Jahangir was again from Kashmir – a daughter of Husain Chak, of Kashmir.
In 1593, Salim married his 16th wife Nur un-nisa Begum Sahiba was a daughter of Ibrahim Husain Mirza while seventeenth was a daughter of Khandesh Raja – Raja ‘Ali Khan Faruqi. Next, 18th was a daughter of ‘Abdu’llah Khan Baluch. Then in June 1596, he married Zain Khan Koka’s daughter Khas Mahal Sahiba, daughter of Zain Khan Koka. Then before 1605 he married his 20th wife at Delhi. She was the daughter of Raja Moman Murad, (before conversion Thakur Man Chand) of Kotaha, in Sirmur.
Marriages After Becoming Emperor
In 1608, Jahangir married his 21st wife Saliha Banu Padshah Begum Sahiba , the principal wife, who was promoted to the rank and title of Padshah Mahal Sahiba and Padshah Banu Begum Sahiba in 1610 She was the daughter of Qasim Khan, a senior member of the Mughal Household. His 22nd wife was Koka Kumari Sahiba, eldest daughter of Yuvraj Shri Jagat Singhji Bahadur of Amber.
Jahangir then married daughter of Sawai Raja Shri Ram Chand Ju Deo Bahadur, Raja of Orchha and Chanderi andnthenmarried his 24th wife – a daughter of Sawai Raja Shri Madhukar Shah Ju Deo Bahadur who was Raja of Orchha.
Jahangir then married his 25th wife Nur Jahan
In May 1611, Jahangir married Mehr-un-Nissa, a widow of Persian soldier Sher Afghan who died in 1607. It is said that Jahangir and Mehr-un-Nissa loved each other in their early days. (I wonder, how come none of our film makers noticed this angle). However, since Jahangir was married to Shah Begum then (Mariam-uz-Zamani’s relative) Akbar didn’t agree with this relationship. So, he himself married off Mehr-un-Nissa to Sher Afghan.
Later when Sher Afghan died, Jahangir decided to marry Mehr-un-Nissa and give her the title of Nur Mahal (Light of the Palace) and Nur Jahan (Light of the World). She had a great influence on Jahangir. In order to make sure her influence continues she married off her step daughter to one prince and her niece Mumtaz Mahal to another prince of Jahangir. After Nur Jahan he married 5 more princess, and bore 7 sons and 14 daughters (out of which 10 died in infancy) in all.
Jahangirs rebellion against his father
Akbar was the first Mughal emperor who extended the Mughal suzerainty over the Deccan Sultanates. Akbar began his Deccan campaign by sending envoys to Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda in 1591. He dispatched his first expedition in 1595 under the command of Prince Murad and Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan. Chand Bibi, the ruler of Ahmednagar, made peace with Murad by surrendering the territory of Berar. Upon the death of Prince Murad in 1599, Akbar sent his youngest son Prince Daniyal to conquer Ahmednagar and himself camped at Burhanpur (Mughal capital at Deccan). In 1600, after the death of Chand Bibi, Ahmednagar was captured by the Mughals. Akbar’s last campaign was against Asirgarh, resulting in the annexation of Khandesh (1601).
When Akbar was engaged in the Deccan campaign, Prince Salim, who was in charge of the capital, rose up in rebellion against his father (1601). On hearing this, Akbar appointed Prince Daniyal as the Viceroy of Deccan (1601) and hurried to Agra. When he returned to Agra, Salim marched with 30,000 cavalry against Agra. Akbar ordered him to return to Allahabad and also offered him the governorship of Bengal and Orissa. But Salim rejected his father’s orders to take the governorship of Bengal and Orissa and returned to Allahabad, where he established his own court. Akbar sent his wazir Abul Fazal (the author of Akbarnama), to Allahabad to bring back the Prince to Agra, but he was murdered by Bir Singh Bundela, on the orders of Salim (1602). “I employed the man who killed Abul Fazal and brought his head to me and for this it was that I incurred my father’s deep displeasure”, Salim admits. Finally Salima Begum effected a reconciliation between father and son and brought the Prince to Agra (1603). Thereafter Salim returned to Allahabad and again indulged in opium and wine. Meanwhile Prince Daniyal also died due to alcoholism (Apr 1604).
Prince Khusrau as Akbars successor
Akbar was displeased with Salim, when he learned that Salim had murdered his closest companion, Abul Fazal. In addition to that, under the double intoxication of wine and opium, Salim sometimes inflicted severest punishments for slightest offences. On this occasion Akbar declared his grandson (Salim’s eldest son) Prince Khusrau his successor instead of Salim. Salim’s rebellion had lasted for more than four years. Akbar himself decided to go to Allahabad and bring the Prince to court. Unfortunately he had to leave for Agra hearing that his mother Maryam Makani (Hamida Banu Begum) was seriously ill. She died on 29th Aug, 1604. Salim, now realizing that he is the only surviving son of his father, decided to submit. He returned to Agra, for giving condolences for the death of his grandmother (Nov 1604). This time Akbar put him in prison. But after ten days, he was released. When Akbar fell ill, the royal court was divided into two groups, one favoring Khusrau and the other Salim. His uncle Raja Man Singh and father-in-law Khan-i-Azam Mirza Aziz Koka, supported Khusrau. But Saiyid Khan, one of the great nobles, said that it is contrary to the laws and customs of the Chaghatai Tatars that while the elder Prince was alive, to put his son upon the throne. Finally, on his death bed, Akbar took his turban off his head and placed it on Salim’s head. The next day Raja Man Singh brought Khusrau to the Court. Salim treated him with great kindness and kissed his face.
The Reign of Jahangir
Jahangir’s political life is closely linked to his personal life. Indeed, his wife, Nûr Jahân (originally known as Mihr un-Nisâ) was the wife of one of his Afghan officers who had been sent to Bengal as a local leader. But this one revolts and loses his life fighting against the Emperor. Mihr un-Nisa is then sent to the harem of Jahangir. The latter falls madly in love and they get married in two months, becoming the preferred wife and taking as such the name of Nur Jahan. Now she had a daughter (Ladlî), a brother (Afsaf Khân), and a still young father. All will have a life in relation to the highest positions of the Empire thanks to her. It must be said that little by little Jahangir sank into alcohol and opium, abandoning the political charges incumbent on him. The Empress’s father was appointed to a key position in the government, the equivalent of a prime minister of the present European nations. The brother, Abu Hasan Hasaf Khan, take more and more power and becomes a very influential figure in the entourage of the Emperor. As for the daughter, Mumtaz Mahal, she will marry Prince Khurram, son of the Emperor and next ruler of the Mughals, some time later. He is known as Shah Jahan and it is for her that he will build the Taj Mahal.
Man of conquests
Jahangir has remained in history as a man of conquests. He opened several fronts, including that of Mewar, a province in the south of the Empire whose ruler, Amar Singh, ended up surrendering in 1613 to Prince Khurram. In the North there are two other fronts, one concerning the fight against the râja of Kângrâ, the other against the âhoms, which poses more problems to the Mughals than other peoples. The Deccan is also the subject of a conquest. The Deccan is the central area of India, rather to the South. It is a vast plateau whose peoples submit to Jahangir in 1615. Moreover, local peoples were not the only ones who could pose problems to the sovereign. Indeed, Europeans had the ability to move around the globe and wanted to set up trading posts on India, gateway to Asia. The Portuguese, the first to arrive, clashed with the Mughals, fighting raged in 1613. Shortly after the British surrendered themselves more oppressive, wishing to obtain permanent trade agreements. It was also at this time that a great of the Kingdom of England was sent to the Mughal course to establish these links. In this situation, the Empire is at its territorial peak, with a territory ranging from Afghanistan to Bengal and the Himalayas in southern India.
Two Important events
It was at this moment that two events occurred.
- First, an epidemic of plague broke out and ravaged part of the population of Northern India. To avoid being touched Jahangir went to Fatehpur-Sikri, the city built by his father to welcome his new capital, but abandoned soon after due to lack of water.
- The second event is more tragic: Jahangir shows signs of weakness. Fearing his death and therefore his removal from power, the Empress Nûr Jahân intrigues to ensure an heir who is favorable to him. She married her daughter to Shâhryâr, one of Jahangir’s sons, whom he had with a concubine, hoping to have a son who could win against Khurram, who had become all-powerful and designated successor. These intrigues weaken the Empire and it is this moment that the Persians choose to seize Kandahâr. In front of this attack, Nûr Jahân demands from Khurram that he goes on the spot to take again the city but this one refuses, formalizing in fact his rupture with her. With his own troops he attacked the forces of his father, directed by Nûr Jahân, but he lost and was forced to return to the Mughal court under the conditions of the Empress, his daughter and son-in-law. Jahangir falls sick again. Khurram, seeing the end of his close father, rebels again. Jahangir, feeling threatened, fled to Kashmir. He died on the road, in Lahore, where he is buried.
Victory over Mewar 1615
Jahangir deputed his second son Parveiz to Mewar and demanded the submission of Rana Amar Singh, son of Maharana Pratap. A tough battle was fought at Dewar, and Rana Amar Singh was able to defend his territories in the Battle of Dewar (1606). Because of Khusru’s insurrection, the Mughal army was recalled; but later in 1608, Mahabat Khan, in 1609, Abdulla Khan and later Raja Basu and subsequently in 1613, Mirza Aziz Koka were all sent by Jahangir to conquer Mewar; but in vain. Jahangir then sent Prince Khurram to Mewar and the Mughal army burnt villages and destroyed many temples. Rana Amar Singh also fought valiantly like his father, Maharana Pratap. However, with the advice of his son, Prince Karan Singh and his nobles, Amar Singh agreed to sign a treaty of peace with Jahangir in 1615. According to the treaty, Rana Amar Singh accepted Mughal sovereignty and send his son Prince Karan to attend the Mughal court. All the territories including Chittor was restored to Rana Amar Singh and unlike other Rajput Chiefs, the Rana was not required to enter into a matrimonial alliance with Mughals. Jahangir celebrated his victory by installing two life-size marble statues of Rana Amar Singh and his son Karan in the garden of his palace at Agra. Prince Karan Singh was appointed as a commander in the Mughal army.
Conquest of Ahmednagar
During Jahangir’s reign, the power of Ahmednagar was considerably increased under the prime minister-ship of Malik Ambar (1600-1626). He used guerrilla warfare to defy the Mughals. In 1617, Jahangir dispatched Prince Khurram to Deccan with a large force and a treaty was signed between the Mughals and Malik Ambar. The territory of Balghat and the fort of Ahmednagar were surrendered to the Mughals. It was on this occasion that Prince Khurram was given the title of Shah Jahan by his father (1617). Later Malik Ambar entered into an agreement with Bijapur and Golconda, and besieged the fort of Ahmednagar in 1620. Since Malik Ambar failed to adhere to the terms of the treaty, Prince Khurram was again sent to Deccan and and a similar peace treaty was followed in 1621. As per the treaty Malik Ambar accepted Mughal sovereignty and a large part of Ahmednagar was surrendered to the Mughals. Malik Amber died in 1626.
Jahangir the Arts Cruelty and Drugs
- Mughal painting reached it greatest heights under Jahangir. Artists arrived from Persia at a rapid clip. The works included pages from the Koran illuminated and decorated with tiny flowers and geometric designs, miniature battle scenes from manuscripts and “paintings by rare artists” from Jahangir’s place. Under Jahangir, Lahore attracted craftsmen from all over Asia: tilemakers weavers, carvers and miniaturists.
- Jahangir enjoyed gardens and spent his summers in relatively cool Kashmir. He built the Gardens of Shalimar (“Abode of Love”) in Kashmir. He once wrote, “The flowers of Kashmir are beyond counting and calculation…The breeze in that place scented one’s brain.” Jahangir loved Kashmir. He treasured the time he spent with his father there.
- Jahangir loved opium and alcohol. He drank his opium in liquid form. In Tuzuk-I-Jahangiri, he wrote, “The entertainment of Thursday was arranged for use in that flower-land, and I was delighted at drinking my usual cups.” Jahangir become so subdued by opium and alcohol that his wife, foreign-born Queen Nur Jahan (Light of the World), ran his empire during most of his reign. She was adept at business and enjoyed hunting tigers and elephants. From what can be surmised she ran the Mughal better than her husband.
- Edward Terry wrote in 1618 during the reign of Jahangir: “For his cruelties, he put one of his women to a miserable death; one of his women he had formerly touched, and kept company with, but now she was superannuated: for neither himself nor his nobles (ast they say) come near their wives or women after they exceed the age of thirty years. The failure of that woman was this, the Mughal came upon her and one of her eunuchs kissing one another.”
- “And for this very thing the King presently gave a command that a round hole should be made in the earth, and that her body should be put in that hole, where she would stand with her head only above ground, and the earth to be put in against unto her close around about her, and so she might stand in the parching sun until the extreme hot beams therefore did kill her; in which torment she lived one whole day, and the night following, and almost until the next noon, crying out the most lamentably….The eunuch by the command of the said King, was brought out near the palace where this poor creature was thus buried alive, and there in his sight cut all to pieces.”
Rules imposed by Jahangir
Jahangir succeeded to the throne on November,1605,on the eight day of Akbar’s death. Soon after accession to the throne Jahangir proceeded to issue a proclaimation of his policy in the shape of twelve rules of conduct ( Dastur_ul- Amal ). These rules or instructions were as follow.
- Prohibition of Cesses ( Zakat )
- Regulations about Highway Robbery and Theft
- Free Inheritance of Property of Deceased persons
- Prohibition of Wine and all kinds of Intoxicating Liquors
- Prohibition of the Taking Possession of the Houses and cutting the Noses and Ears of the criminals.
- Prohibition of Ghasbi
- Building of Hospitals and Appointment of Physicians to attend the Sick
- Prohibiting Slaughter of Animals
- Respect paid to Sunday
- General Confirmation of Mnsabs and Jagirs
- Confirmation of aima Lands
- Amnesty for all Prisoners
Jahangir and Anarkali
The love story of Salim and Anarkali is a story that every lover knows. The Mughal prince Salim falling for a courtesan Anarkali is the stuff that legends are made of. The relationship of Salim and Anarkali outraged the Mughal emperor Akbar so much that both father and son decided to go on war. According to legend, Salim, the son of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, fell in love with a beautiful courtesan named Anarkali as a young prince. Anarkali, whose title means “pomegranate blossom” (a title bestowed for her beauty) was famed for her dancing skills as well as her great beauty.
It is believed that her original name was Nadira or Sharf-un-Nisa.He was mesmerized by her beauty and fell in love as soon as he saw her. But Anarkali was a mere dancing girl, and dancing girls were not of noble birth. They were considered to be low-born and keeping any relation with them were looed dow and strictly prohibited by the society. Anarkali knew that their romance was forbidden in the eyes of the prince’s father, Mughal Emperor Akbar. So she tried to keep away from Salim. But how could she hold herself back from the prince’s charms for long? Love knows no rules, and soon Anarkali too was deeply in love with Salim. But such an intense love can’t be concealed forever. The emperor could not digest the fact that his son was in love with an ordinary courtesan.
He started pressurizing Anarkali and devised all sorts of tactics to make her fall in the eyes of the young, love smitten prince. When Salim came to know of this, he declared a war against his own father. But the mighty emperor’s gigantic army proves too much for the young prince to handle. He gets defeated and is sentenced to death. This is when Anarkali intervenes and renounces her love to save her beloved from the jaws of death. She is entombed alive in a brick wall right in front of her lover’s eyes. It is, however, said that she did not die. The tomb was constructed on the opening of a secret tunnel unknown to Salim. It is said she escaped through that tunnel and fled the place, never to return again. The heartbroken Salim lives on to become emperor Jahangir. But he could never forget his one true love Anarkali, in his lifetime. When he died, her name was on his lips.
Thus ends the tragic love story of Salim and Anarkali.
Two Sides of his character.
Bright side of his character.
Jahangir possessed a very amiable personality. He always showed great respect to his mother and other elders of his family. Though he rebelled against his father, yet he showed very much repentance over his folly. He always cherished the memory of Akbar and used to pay his homage to the departed soul. Jahangir was highly educated man.He had aquired sufficient knowledge of Arabic, Hindi and Persian languages. His own memoirs called Tuzak_i_ Jahangiri is a proof of his excellent composition. He was very much interested in the fine arts like music,architecture, painting and others. Jahangir had a great passion for justice, allowing all men to approach him with complaints which he himself heard. With a view to make him accessible to all the seekers of justice, he caused gold chain with bells to be hung between the Shah Burj an the Agra fort and a post on the road near the bank of the river Jumna so as to enable the suitors to ring the bell of justice.
Dark Side of His Character.
Jahangir had many good qualities in his character, but he had certain shortcomings too which eclipsed the good qualities in him. He was a notorious drunkard but punished other drunkards very severely. He had formed such a strong habit of wine that wine failed to intoxicate him. Thus he became more and more engrossed in pleasure and ease, till he became a figure head in the State, and real powers being thus enjoyed by Nur Jahan, he never interfered with the work of Nur Jahan. The health of Jahangir was completely shattered on account of excessive drinking. He was trying to restore it by visiting Kashmir and Kabul. On his way from Kabul to Kashmir he returned to Lahore on account of severe cold and died on the way in October 1627, probably in the vicinity of Murree and Abbottabad, according to one account , his body was brought to Lahore and was ultimately interred in the tomb near Shahdara, Lahore.
Jahangir’s reign was noted for architectural works. When his chief minister Itimad-ud-daulah died in 1622, his daughter, the powerful Nur Jahan, commissioned the construction in white marble of his exquisite tomb at Agra which was finished in 1628. Unlike the much larger Taj Mahal, with which it ranked in quality, the appeal of the tomb depended on its decoration. It looked like a brilliant casket, bejewelled with various styles of inlay. Its two major innovations—the extensive use of white marble as a material and inlay as a decorative motif—were to become the distinguishing features of the greatest period of Mughal architecture.
The high quality of both paintings and coins during Jahangir’s reign was a direct result of the emperor’s personal interest. Having grown up at Fatehpur-Sikri in the busy days of Akbar’s studio, he was a keen student of technique and claimed to be able to tell which master had painted the eye and eyebrow in a face and which the rest of the portrait. In addition, he seems to have invented and commissioned from his artists a new style of political allegory in art which, however self-congratulatory and vain, provided some of the most magnificent paintings of the period. One such picture claims to celebrate a new spirit of peace with his Persian neighbor, Shah Abbas.
Toward the end of Jahangir’s reign, Nur Jahan took a more active role in the government and appointed her politically adroit brother, Asaf Khan, as the premier of the realm. In 1626, brother and sister decided to attack the powerful Mahabat Khan. An Afghan by birth, Mahabat Khan realized the precarious situation and so marched north with 5,000 Rajput troops toward the imperial camp on the bank of the Jhelum. As Jahangir and Nur Jahan traveled to Kabul, Mahabat Khan took the emperor prisoner. Though Jahangir managed to escape with the help of a clever scheme by Nur Jahan, Mahabat Khan then joined forces with Shah Jahan. The prince was now stronger than ever. A shaken emperor turned north to the only place where he now found solace. For several years, he had made an almost annual journey to Kashmir. There, he had found a natural paradise, but he and his court had done much to make it an artificial one. The Mughal gardens, which are one of the main glories of Srinagar, are the direct result of his enthusiasm. The Shalimar Bagh, built by Jahangir, is distinguished by a series of pavilions on carved pillars, surrounded by pools with seats which can only be reached by stepping stones.
While some European historians consider Jahangir as a fickle-minded tyrant, Indian authors regard him as a just and noble ruler. Most writers now agree that he was a highly educated and cultured man. His autobiography is a testimony of his interest in subjects like botany and zoology. Among the notable buildings renovated by him, Akbar’s tomb at Sikandra is the most remarkable. He altered its design and partly rebuilt it. Under his patronage, a great mosque was built in Lahore; it rivals the grand mosque in Delhi, built by his son, Shah Jahan.
Tuzuk-e-Jahangiri or Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri is the autobiography of Mughal Emperor Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir (1569-1627). Also referred to as Jahangirnama,Tuzk-e-Jahangiri is written in Persian, and follows the tradition of his great-grandfather, Babur (1487-1530), who had written the Baburnama; though Jahangir went a step further and besides the history of his reign, he includes details like his reflections on art, politics, and also information about his family.
The health of Jahangir was completely shattered by too much drinking of alcohol. He was trying to restore it by visiting Kashmir and Kabul. He went from Kabul to Kashmir but returned to Lahore on account of a severe cold. Jahangir died on the way from Kashmir in 1627 and was buried in Shahdara Bagh, a suburb of Lahore, Punjab. He was succeeded by his third son, Prince Khurram who took the title of Shah Jahan. Jahangir’s elegant mausoleum is located in the Shahdara locale of Lahore and is a popular tourist attraction in Lahore. On his death in 1627 he uttered ‘Kashmir only Kashmir’.
The love dou of Jahangir and Anarkali has ben dramatized several times.
Despite wars and rebellions, Jahangir’s reign was generally prosperous, as he enjoyed the legacy of his father. His memoirs often expressed good intentions for promoting justice and efficiency, but he seldom followed through because of his indulgence in alcohol and drugs.