ClausesA greater list of provincial powers was made so as to allow the provinces to form the possible future basis of an all-Indian federation.
- Official majorities were abolished and replaced with elected ones and the central legislature was divided into two houses, a 'bicamral' structure.
- The Legislative assembly, previously known as the Legislative Council, was to have 145 members, of which 103 were elected, with a life of three years. Of
- Seperate electorates were not only kept for the Muslims but were also extended to the Sikhs.
- The Council of State was to have 60 members, of whic 33 were elected.
- The Central administration was to retain control of income tax, railways and salt but land tax, excise and irrigation were to be given to the provinces.
- The viceroy could enact or pass any bill he chose if he decided that an Act was necessory for the safety and tranquillity of Inida.
- The Executive Council was still wholly nominated, although it now has three Indian members out of six.
Principle of Diarchy
Power reatained with governorThe governor still retained vast powers as he kept not only reserved subjects under his control to be administered by executive concillors nominated by himslef, but even transferred subjects were run by ministeres chosen by him from the Legislative Council.
Princes councilA Council of Princes was established, presided over by the viceroy, with 108 members. it was to discuss maters of state but had no powers at all and major states such as Hyderabad did not even bother to join.
Rowlatt Act 1919The feeling of resentment was compounded when the British passed the infamous Rowlatt Act in 1919 which was seen as a classic example of the ' carrot and stick' tactic.
Purpose of this actThe Montague-Chelmsford reforms were held out as an offer to the political parties as concessions if they accepted the right of the British to remain in charge. The Rawlatt act was there to deal with those who did not.
RecommendationsJustice Rowlatt had made recommendations in order to deal with the increasingly volatile situations in the sub-continent and these were accepted by the viceroy.
- The Rowlatt Act included the rigt of arrest without a warrant
- Detention without bail
- It could also dictate people to live where dictated by the provincial government.
ReactionA storm broke out over the details of the plans:
- Muhammad Ali Jinnah resigned from the Imperial Legislative Council in protest.
- In the wake of the popular discontent, the Britis decided to ban some publications and public meetings.
- The Punjab, in particular, was especially active and it was in Amritsar that the Rowlatt Act was to have the most impact.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
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