Poona savaranjik sabha
The movement for India’s independence began with the establishment of the Indian National Congress in 1885. It is very difficult to say as to how the idea of establishing an organisation like the National Congress originated.
Organisations before Congress
Before the birth of the National Congress, a number of organisations were formed. But most of them had limited objectives and their influence remained confined to their respective regions. In order to draw the attention of the British public opinion towards the welfare of the Indians:
- In 1866, Dadabhai Naroji established East Indian Association in London
- Mahadeva Govinda Ranade formed the Madras Mahajana Sabha in 1881
- Poona Sarvajanik Sabha in 1867 for social reforms and national awakening
- In 1885, the Bombay Presidency Association was formed under the leadership of persons like Feroz Shall Mehta, Badruddin Tayabji etc. with the aim of awakening national consciousness.
However, among all these organisations, the Indian Association established under the leadership of Surendra Natli Banerjee and Anand Mohan Bose, actively attempted to form a strong public opinion against the unjust policies of the British Government. It opposed the Arms Act and the Vernacular Press Act of Lord Lytton. It also opposed the reduction of the qualifying age for appearing in the Indian Civil Service Examination from twenty-one to nineteen. It organised a number of peasant demonstrations demanding reduction of the rate of revenue. With a view of bringing representatives from all over India to a common platform, the Indian Association organised All-India National Conferences twice in 1883 and 1885. But the Indian public opinion could be organised and articulated only with the formation of Indian National Congress as a national forum.
Birth of Congress
A remarkable landmark of the history of Indo-Pak is the establishment of Indian National Congress in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume (1829-1912), a retired servant who had a flame to do something for the people of India. Congress owes a lot of homage to A.O. Hume who became friends with the Indians while all his country men were treating the Indian as inferiors and the ruled. He came forward with the viewpoint of the welfare of the Indians.
Services of A.O Hume
As the Director General of Agriculture, Hume left no stone unturned to serve the Indians but after his retirement, he laid the foundations of the Congress to continue his strife for the poor Indians as he had been with those poor Indians and knew their nuisances. Hume was keenly observing the developments in India and Indians’ ire against the British. He sensed a rebellion and appealed to make a Union based on Indians to have their say.  services
- In the end of 1884, he succeeded to form a Union which called for a meeting in December 1885.
- In the beginning the Congress had very liberal and moderate views and ideology as it was under the influence of the British and the restrained Hindus.
- In April 1885, the manifestation of the Congress was issued.
- On December 28, 1885 the first meeting of Indian National Congress was held at Gukal Das Tej Pal Sanscrit College in Bombay.
- Wumesh Chandra Bannergee presided over the first historical meeting of Congress.
The foundation of the Congress denoted in two ways:
- One from the British side who wanted to ventilate the sentiments of the Indians and ultimately prolong their rule
- The other was that the Indian Hindus and Sikhs wanted to grab the privileges of the British monarch.
Whatsoever it was, it laid the foundations of voicing the anguishes out though under the canopy of the British Raj.
The pre-independence period
The Indian National Congress first convened in December 1885, though the idea of an Indian nationalist movement opposed to British rule dated from the 1850s. During its first several decades, the Congress Party passed fairly moderate reform resolutions, though many within the organization were becoming radicalized by the increased poverty that accompanied British imperialism. In the early 20th century, elements within the party began to endorse a policy of swadeshi (“of our own country”), which called on Indians to boycott of imported British goods and promoted Indian-made goods. By 1917 the group’s “extremist” Home Rule wing, which was formed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant the previous year, had begun to exert significant influence by appealing to India’s diverse social classes.
In the 1920s and ’30s the Congress Party, led by Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, began advocating nonviolent noncooperation. The new change in tactics was precipitated by the protest over the perceived feebleness of the constitutional reforms enacted in early 1919 (Rowlatt Acts) and Britain’s manner of carrying them out, as well as by the widespread outrage among Indians in response to the massacre of civilians in Amritsar (Punjab) that April. Many of the acts of civil disobedience that followed were implemented through the All India Congress Committee, formed in 1929, which advocated avoiding taxes as a protest against British rule. Notable in that regard was the Salt March in 1930 led by Gandhi. Another wing of the Congress Party, which believed in working within the existing system, contested general elections in 1923 and 1937 as the Swaraj (Home Rule) Party, with particular success in the latter year, winning 7 out of 11 provinces.
World War II
Quit India Movement
When World War II began in 1939, Britain made India a belligerent without consulting Indian elected councils. That action angered Indian officials and prompted the Congress Party to declare that India would not support the war effort until it had been granted complete independence.
Quit India movement
In 1942 the organization sponsored mass civil disobedience to support the demand that the British “quit India.” British authorities responded by imprisoning the entire Congress Party leadership, including Gandhi, and many remained in jail until 1945. After the war the British government of Clement Attlee passed an independence bill in July 1947, and independence was achieved the following month. In January 1950 India’s constitution as an independent state took effect.  pre-partition role
Muslims and the Congress
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
On 28th December 1885 the first session of the Congress was held with 72 members among whom, 58 were Hindus of which only 2 were Muslims. This obvious difference in the ratio of membership continued throughout the history of the Congress’s existence as the only political party in the Indian sub-continent. For instance in the Congress session held in 1894 there were 118 Hindu members of Congress and only 20 were Muslims. The difference of proportion between the two nations’ representatives can show a great deal of truth about the intentions of the Congress.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
The chief Muslim leaders in India at that time were Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
and his Aligarh comrades who believed that the English government was accusing Muslims to be the real force behind the “ mutiny of 1857
”. According to Sir Syed, Muslims should stay aloof from all political matters to give the government the impression that they were not concerned with the politics so that they can save themselves from the government’s wrath. Attainment of modern western education was the focus of the educated sections of Muslim society. The rest of the Muslim population was either too unaware of the current political affairs because of their educational backwardness or too afraid for their lives.
Congress's hipocratic policy
Congress on the other hand started to become more and more prejudiced against the Muslims. Hindus, being in majority in the party started using it to achieve their own ends. The Congress during all her life in united India kept claiming that it represented all the communities living in India no matter what their faiths were. But the reality was quite the opposite. During the last decade of the 19th century Congress and its policies became excessively biased and violent toward the Muslims. Extremist Hindus like Tilak, Medan Mohan Malvia, Rash Behari Ghosh and Banerjee became its major leaders who practically took arms against the Muslims, their faith and practices. Their violent protests against cow slaughter and division of Bengal are living proofs of Congress’s pro-Hindu approach.
Role of Muslims politicians of Congress
In spite of all anti-Muslim activities of the Congress, some Muslim politicians had stuck their desires with the part because they agreed with the claim of the Congress that all the people living in India were one nation and Congress planned to keep it that way. Muslim politicians like Maulana Azad, Maulan Mohammad Ali Johar
and even Mohammad Ali Jinnah
were also in favor of united India and they believed that in spite of all the newly emerging Hindu-Muslim differences there was still the chance of their unity and that’s why they remained with the Congress.
Formation of All-India Muslim league
Founding fathers of All india Muslim league
On the Aligarh side, after the death of Sir Syed, his successors like Mohsin-ul-Mulk and Wiqar-ul-Mulk perceived that the time for Muslim separation from politics was gone and a new era had begun, that demanded a political party for the Muslims as well. For that reason in 1906 All India Muslim League was formed which in contrast to the Congress declared itself to be the representative of the Muslims of India alone who were by all definition a separate nation.
From All India Muslim League to Muslim League
The formation of Muslim League opened new doors for Muslim politicians who now had an independent platform of their own to work for their own good. Still there were some Muslims like Jinnah and Johar who believed that the unity of Hindus and Muslims alone could help figure out the solutions of the problems that India and the Indians were facing. That’s why Jinnah joined Muslim League
as well in 1913 when he was still a member of the Congress. He tried to become the bridge between the two major political parties of India at that time and because of his efforts in 1916, the famous Lucknow Pact
was finalized between the two associations which could create a relationship of mutual trust but even that attempt proved to be futile because of the rigidity of Congress:
- Their constant claim to be the only representative party of the Indians and their refusal to accept Muslims as an independent nation led to the failure of the Lucknow Pact.
- Similarly the betrayal of the Congress during the Khilafat Movement, when the intentional of Congress the movement to save the Ottoman Caliphate failed in India disillusioned the Muslims from Congress even more.
Soon Jinnah also realized the non-conciliatory intentions of the Congress and resigned from its membership.
Victory of Congress
With the passage of time Muslim League started becoming a great representative of the aspirations of the Muslims of India and they started looking towards the League it as their guardian. So the chances of Congress having the Muslim support as well started to become bleak. The Congress, however, did not bother about that much and in 1928 the Nehru Report
from the Congress platform distinctly crystallized the anti-Muslim approach of the “political party of the whole of India”. These differences of opinion on all matters led to the freedom movement of Pakistan prior to which during the elections of 1937 Congress won the majority seats in the legislature and formed government in India.
Terrible time for Muslims
ML celebrated day of deliverance
Those were terrible times for all Indians except Hindus of course, and particularly for Muslims. Congress during its rule did all in its capacity to work against Muslims and their representative political party Muslim League. Hindu-Muslim riots were common stories of the day in which the Muslims were always accused for everything. Cow slaughter was banned in many regions. Congress party song Banday Mataram was declared the national anthem of India which branded all Muslims as outsiders and traitors and the song suggested the elimination of Muslims by all means. The language controversy was given a new life during that time as well. All these events proved that all Congress wanted was to destroy Muslims, their heritage and to rule them as masters over slaves. That’s why when Congress ministries resigned in 1939; Muslims of India celebrated Day of Deliverance on 22nd December. The Congress doings intensified the feelings of freedom of the Muslims and though Muslims like Maulana Azad and his party Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Hind kept themselves on the Congress side and hailed for a united India the majority of the Indian Muslims followed Muslim League and finally founded an independent country for themselves called Pakistan
in 1947.  Muslim and congress
Postindependence dominance of the Nehru clan
- From 1951 until his death in 1964, Jawaharlal Nehru dominated the Congress Party, which won overwhelming victories in the elections of 1951–52, 1957, and 1962.
- The party united in 1964 to elect Lal Bahadur Shastri and in 1966 Indira Gandhi (Nehru’s daughter) to the posts of party leader and thus prime minister.
- In 1967, however, Indira Gandhi faced open revolt within the party, and in 1969 she was expelled from the party by a group called the “Syndicate.”
- Nevertheless, her New Congress Party scored a landslide victory in the 1971 elections, and for a period it was unclear which party was the true rightful heir of the Indian National Congress label.
- In the mid-1970s the New Congress Party’s popular support began to fracture.
- From 1975 Gandhi’s government grew increasingly more authoritarian, and unrest among the opposition grew.
- In the parliamentary elections held in March 1977, the opposition Janata (People’s) Party scored a landslide victory over the Congress Party, winning 295 seats in the Lok Sabha (the lower chamber of India’s parliament) against 153 for the Congress; Gandhi herself lost to her Janata opponent.
- On January 2, 1978, she and her followers seceded and formed a new opposition party, popularly called Congress (I)—the “I” signifying Indira. Over the next year, her new party attracted enough members of the legislature to become the official opposition, and in 1981 the national election commission declared it the “real” Indian National Congress.
- In 1996 the “I” designation was dropped. In November 1979 Gandhi regained a parliamentary seat, and the following year she was again elected prime minister.
- In 1982 her son Rajiv Gandhi became nominal head of the party, and, upon her assassination in October 1984, he became prime minister.
- In December he led the Congress Party to an overwhelming victory in which it secured 401 seats in the legislature.
List of all Congress party presidents
- 1885, 1892: W.C. Bonnerjee was the President of the 1885 session in Bombay. He was the first president of the Indian National Congress. Bonnerjee was also the president of INC’s Allahabad session in 1892.
- 1886, 1893: Dadabhai Naoroji was the president of the Calcutta conference in 1886. The Lahore session in 1893 was also held under his presidentship. He was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader and social reformer renowned as the Grand Old Man of India.
- 1887: Badruddin Tyabji was the president at the Madras conference in 1887.
- 1888: George Yule became the first British president of INC and presided over the Allahabad session in 1888.
- 1889, 1910: William Wedderburn was the president at the Bombay session in 1889 and the Allahabad conference in 1910.
- 1890: Pherozeshah Mehta was the president of INC’s Calcutta session in 1890. He was a leading lawyer in the Bombay presidency and was knighted by the British government for his service.
- 1891: Anandacharlu presided over the Nagpur session in 1891.
- 1894: Alfred Webb was the president at the 1894 Madras conference.
- 1895, 1892: Surendranath Banerjee was the president of INC’s Poona session in 1895 and the Ahmedabad conference in 1902. He was called the sobriquet Rashtraguru.
- 1896: Rahimtulla M Sayani was the president at the Calcutta session in 1896. One of the founding members of INC, he was the second Muslim to become its president. He was a follower of Aga Khan and was from the Khoja community.
- 1897: C. Sankaran Nair was the president at Amraoti conference of INC in 1897. Till date, he is the only Keralite to have held the position. A lawyer, jurist and activist by profession, he had slammed the highhandedness of the foreign administration and called for self-governance.
- 1898: Anandamohan Bose, a barrister by profession, was the president at the Madras conference in 1898.
- 1899: Romesh Chunder Dutt presided over the Lucknow conference in 1899. He was a civil servant, writer, translator of Mahabharata and Ramayana, and an economic historian.
- 1900: Sir Narayan Ganesh Chandavarkar was the president of the Lahore session of INC in 1900. He was then one of the leading Hindu reformers in western India. He was also on the bench of the Bombay High Court and was knighted in 1910.
- 1901: Dinshaw Edulji Wacha, one of the founding members of INC, was president at the 1901 Calcutta session of INC.
- 1903: Lalmohan Ghosh presided over the 1903 conference of INC in Madras. He was a leading Bengali barrister.
- 1904: Henry John Stedman Cotton was the president at the 1904 conference at Bombay. He was a long-serving Indian civil servant and was sympathetic to the sentiments of Indian nationalists.
- 1905: Gopal Krishna Gokhale presided over the Benares conference in 1905. He went on to lead the moderate group (naram dal) after the party split into garam dal and naram dal. After Mahatma Gandhi’s return to India, he joined Gokhale’s group to lead the independence movement.
- 1907, 1908: Rashbihari Ghosh was the president of INC’s Surat conference in 1907 and the Madras session of 1908. He was a politician, lawyer, social activist and philanthropist. He was one of the most vocal opponents of radicalism or extremism and was part of the moderates.
- 1909, 1918: Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was the president of INC’s 1909 conference in Lahore and the 1918 conference in Delhi. He is credited with founding the Benares Hindu University, Asia’s largest residential university. An educationist by profession, he was conferred with the title mahamana by Rabindranath Tagore and was also posthumously conferred with the Bharat Ratna.
- 1911: Bishan Narayan Dar presided over the Calcutta session in 1911.
- 1912: Rao Bahadur Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar was the president at the Bankipore session of INC in 1912. He was a staunch advocate of female education, widow remarriage abolition of untouchability. He was also Companion (CIE) of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878.
- 1913; Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur was the president at INC’s Karachi session in 1913. Born into one of the wealthiest families in south India, he was also the first Muslim sheriff of Madras.
- 1914: Bhupendra Nath Bose was the president at the 1914 session of INC in Madras. He was also the first president of Mohun Bagan AC.
- 1915: Lord Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, the first baron of Raipur, was the president of the Bombay conference in 1915. He was later knighted and became the first Indian to be a member of the British House of Lords. Sinha’s ennoblement also helped to move a bill that eventually became the Government of India Act 1919.
- 1916: Ambica Charan Mazumdar was the president at INC’s Lucknow session in 1916. The historic Lucknow Pact between the INC and Muslim League was signed during this session. It was also the session where the Congress’ moderate and extremist groups reunited.
- 1917: Annie Besant presided over the 1917 session in Calcutta and became the first woman president of INC. Besant was a sociologist, theosophist, social reformer and an advocate of Indian self-rule.
- 1918: Syed Hasan Imam presided over the Special Session of 1918 in Bombay. The session was convened to deliberate the contentious Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms Scheme. He was also a leader of the Khilafat movement.
- 1919: Motilal Nehru presided over the Amritsar session of INC in 1919 as well the Kolkata session of 1928. Motilal Nehru was an eminent lawyer and is the founder patriarch of the Nehru-Gandhi family. The second session presided by him witnessed a tussle between two sections of the party –one which accepted dominion status and the other which wanted complete independence. He was also part of the civil disobedience movement, non-cooperation movement, and the Swaraj party. Though close to Mahatma Gandhi, he was often critical of him.
- 1920: Lala Lajpat Rai presided over the Calcutta session in 1920. He was regarded as Punjab Kesari. A freedom fighter, he also controversially asked for India to be divided into a Hindu and Muslim state in 1923. He was also a leader of several Hindu reform movements, including the Arya Samaj.
- 1920: C. Vijayaraghavachariar presided over the Special Session at Nagpur in 1920. He was an orthodox vaishnavite who was accused of inciting religious riots, but was cleared later. He was close to AO Hume and played a key role in the formation of the Swaraj Constitution. He was also part of the Propaganda Committee of Congress.
- 1921: Hakim Ajmal Khan presided over the 1921 session in Ahmedabad. He was one of the founders of Delhi’s Jamia Millia Islamia University and the Ayurvedic and Unani Tibbia (medical) College. He is the only person to have been appointed president of the Indian National Congress, the Muslim League and the All India Khilafat Committee.
- 1922: Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das presided over the Gaya conference of INC in 1922. A lawyer by profession, he was a leading member of the Indian National Movement and a founding leader of the Swaraj Party in Bengal.
- 1923: Mohammad Ali Jouhar was the president at the Kakinada session of INC in 1923.
- 1923, 1940-46: Abul Kalam Azad presided over the Delhi Special Session in 1923. He was also elected presided of the 1940 session in Ramgarh. Commonly regarded as Maulana Azad, the leader was conferred Bharat Ratna posthumously. He was a revolutionary poet, journalist, activist and freedom fighter. He is credited for the formation of University Grants Commission and the Indian Institutes of Technology. He oversaw the formation of a national education system which offered free education till primary school.
- 1924: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the president of INC’s Belgaum session in 1924. Gandhi spearheaded several movements like the non-violent civil disobedience, non-cooperation, swadesi movement etc. Gandhi is one of the most important members of the Indian nationalist movement solely on the basis of influence and mass support gathered by his vision of non-violence, religious pluralism, swaraj and a upliftment of the downtrodden.
- 1925: Sarojini Naidu presided over the 1925 session in Kanpur.
- 1926: S Srinivasa Iyengar was the president at the Gauhati session of Congress in 1926. An eminent lawyer, he served as the Advocate-General of Madras Presidency from 1916-1920.
- 1927: Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari presided over the Madras session in 1927. He also served as the president of the Muslim League and was one of the founders of Jamia Millia Islamia University. He was chancellor from 1928-36.
- 1929, 1930, 1936, 1937, 1946 (July-Sep), 1951-1954: Jawaharlal Nehru presided over the Lahore session in 1929 as well as the Karachi session of 1930. He also presided over the 1936 sessions in Lucknow and the 1937 session in Faizpur. He presided over the Delhi sessions in 1951 and 1952 as well as the Hyderabad and Calcutta sessions in 1953 and 1954. Jawaharlal Nehru wasn’t elected president in 1929 but was backed by the influential Motilal Nehru. However, he was one of the central figures of Indian politics and Independence movement. The first prime minister of independent India was a trained barrister and was mentored by Gandhi. He is regarded as Pandit Nehru due to roots his in the Kashmiri Pandit community.
- 1931: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was president of the Karachi session in 1931. The conference endorsed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact under his presidentship at this session. Patel was one of the leading figures of Indian independence movement and is credited with persuading hundreds of provinces to form India.
- 1933: Nellie Sengupta presided over the Calcutta session in 1933.
- 1934, 1935: Rajendra Pasad was the president of the INC of Bombay conference in 1934 and the Lucknow session in 1935. Rajendra Prasad also went on to become the first president of independent India.
- 1938, 1939: Subhas Chandra Bose was the president of the Haripura session of Congress. He was elected the president for the Jabalpur session in 1939 but had to resign. He was replaced by Rajendra Prasad. Bose founded the Indian National Army (INA) and was opposed to the pacifist movement adopted by INC. His movement aimed at liberating India by the all Indian army INA. He is one of most renowned freedom fighters in India’s history.
- 1947: J.B. Kripalani presided over the Meerut session in 1947. He was one of the most ardent disciples of Mahatma Gandhi and was president of INC during transfer of power from Britain to India in 1947.
- 1948, 1949: Pattabhi Sitaraimayya was the president of INC in 1948 and 1949, and presided over the Jaipur conference. He was a staunch advocate of provinces divided on linguistic lines.
- 1950: Purushottam Das Tandon was president in 1950 and presided over the Nasik session. He was one of the leading figures that demanded official language status for Hindi.
- 1955-1959: U. N. Dhebar was president of INC from 1955-1959. During his time, he presided over the sessions in Avadi, Amritsar, Indore, Gauhati and Nagpur.
- 1959, 1978-84: Indira Gandhi was mentored by her father Jawaharlal Nehru and learnt the nuances of party politics and governance by working as his aide for several years. She was elected as president in 1959 and presided over the Delhi special session. She was re-elected as president after the split in Congress in 1978 and, barring a brief gap, served till her assassination in 1984. She gained notoriety for several issues like imposition of emergency, war with Pakistan, gagging of press, raid of Golden Temple etc. She is also renowned as one of India’s strongest and most decisive prime ministers.
- 1960-1963: Neelam Sanjiva Reddy was president of INC from 1960-1963 presiding over the Bangalore, Bhavnagar and Patna sessions. He also went on to become the sixth president of India.
- 1964-1967: K. Kamaraj was president of INC from 1964 to 1967 presiding over Bhubaneswar, Durgapur and Jaipur sessions. He was regarded as the kingmaker in Indian politics. He played an important role in the elevation of Lal Bahadur Shastri as India’s prime minister after Jawaharlal Nehru’s death.
- 1968, 1969: S. Nijalingappa was INC’s president in 1968-69. He was a key member of the Indian independence movement as well as the unification of Karnataka.
- 1970, 1971: Jagjivan Ram was president in 1970-71. Commonly regarded as Babuji, he was a leader for the backward classes, untouchables and exploited labour. He pushed for social justice to be enshrined in the constitution and was the youngest minister in Nehru’s interim government in 1946.
- 1972-74: Shankar Dayal Sharma served as president of INC for four years. He went on to become the ninth president of India. He is also the recipient of Living Legends of Law Award of Recognition by the International Bar Association.
- 1975-77: Devakanta Barua served as Congress president during emergency from 1975-1977. He had once famously said: “India is Indira. Indira is India.” However, he later left Indira’s side and joined Congress (Urs), which was later rechristened Indian Congress (Socialist).
- 1985-1991: Rajiv Gandhi succeeded his mother Indira Gandhi to the position of INC president in 1985 and served until the time he was assassinated in 1991. He became the youngest prime minister of India when he was elected to the post at age of 40. His tenure was mired in controversies like the Bhopal gas tragedy, Shah Bano case, Bofors scam, which led to Congress’ defeat in 1989. He also blocked the coup in Maldives, antagonised groups like PLOTE, sent peace corps to Sri Lanka in 1987 which resulted in direct conflict with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). He was the younger brother of Congress leader Sanjay Gandhi and husband to Sonia Gandhi.
- 1992-96: PV Narsimha Rao was president of Congress from 1992 to 1996. He was the first prime minister from southern India and, under his tenure, he oversaw the liberalisation of India’s economy.
- 1996-1998: Sitaram Kesri was elected president and served from 1996-1998. His was one of the most controversial exits from the party.
- 1998-2017: Sonia Gandhi, Italian by descent, married Rajiv Gandhi to come into the Nehru-Gandhi family. She is the longest-serving president of the party till date. She joined the party as a primary member at the 1997 plenary session and was elected president in 1998. She took over the reins of the party seven years after her husband was assassinated and has held office since then. Under her tenure, she began by suffering defeat at the hands of the BJP. However, she led the party to two consecutive victories during general elections in 2004 and 2009.  list
Created By: Rubab Fatima
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