It did not take the Muslims long to realize that they could not afford to be disorganized and disunited. The Indian National Congress was dominated by Hindus and it is impossible for Muslims to join such Hindu dominated party. So it was inevitable that some Muslim group should be formed.
- The Muslims were disturbed by the Congress demand that ‘ India’ should be treated as a cultural whole and Hindi should be declared the national language.
- Even more worrying for the Muslims, however, was the emergence of extreme Hindu nationalist groups, such as the Arya Samaj, who demanded that Muslims should be forcibly converted to Hinduism.
Role of Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk
Simla Delegation (8 Oct, 1906)
- Firstly, that in all local and provincial elections, Muslims must be safely represented and teir representatives must be elected by purely Muslims voters.
- The second demand was that Muslims must be given weightage in all elected bodies; in other words, have more seats than their percentage of the population.
Ground facts behind demands
- The first demand was made on the grounds that in the existing tense situation, every elected seat could lead to a communal riot and that no Muslims elected by Hindu voters would be a true representative of the Muslims.
- The demand for weightage was made on the grounds that Muslims owned more land in India and they formed a large proportion of British Indian army.
Simla Delegation- crucial turning point for MuslimsThe Simla delegation represents a crucial turning point for Muslims of British India.
- All the efforts of Muslims like Sir Syed now paid off in removing the bad feeling between the Muslims and British.
- The acceptance of demands shows how far the British were willing to go to restore relations, particularly after the Bengal episode.
- The long term importance of this meeting was that the underlying tensions between the two main communities in the Subcontinent, the Hindus and the Muslims, were now on a constitutional plane. The majority and wished to have constitutional protection and safeguards.
- The idea of a single nation was implicitly rejected by the Muslims. The granting of the right as separate electorate to as large and important a group as Muslims has to be seen as a major step.
- It was a the first rel political step towards a separate homeland.
Pheroze Shah MehtaOnly one thing was certain after the Simla delegation: the Muslims had guaranteed themselves an independent role in the political process. There were attempts by the Muslims, even at this early stage, to pressure the Congress into accepting them as a significant group in India. Howver, the Congress, under Sir Pheroze Shah Mehta, refused, leading the prominent Muslims to only one logical conclusion: the Muslims needed a party of their own which would represent and protect their interests.
Announcement of All India Muslim League
Points of League’s resolutionThe presidential address was read by Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk. The League adopted as its resolutions the following points:
- To promote amongst the Muslims of India feelings of loyalty to the British government and to remove any misconceptions that may arise as to the intentions of the government with regard to any of its measures.
- To protect and advance the political rights and interests of Muslims of India and respectfully to represent their needs and aspirations to the government.
- To prevent the rise, amongst the Muslims of India, of any feelings of hostility towards other communities, without prejudice to other objects of the League.
Reaction of Congress
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