Disease (Medical)

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Article Upload Date: Mon 20 Mar 2017
2017-03-20 11:31:33Disease
   
A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the causal study of etiology. Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.[1] Disease Description
  • Details
  • Type:

    Abnormal

  • Skin infection types:

    33

  • common infection skin:

    Cellulitis

  • Skin infections Caused Caused:

    bacteria, virus, fungus, or parasites. Impetigo

  • Different Types of Heart Disease:

    coronary, ischemic, and congenital

  • Common Heart Disease:

    Coronary

  • Other Forms of Heart Diseses:

    irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias) , congenital heart defects , weak heart muscles (cardiomyopathy) , heart valve problems , heart infections , cardiovascular disease

  • The Heart Foundation:

    Estimates 380,000 related deaths per year

  • Liver Disease Types :

    8

  • liver function value:

    ALT. 7 to 55 units per liter (U/L) AST. 8 to 48 U/L. ALP. 45 to 115 U/L

  • Typhoid Specialty:

    Infectious disease

  • CancerTypes:

    100+

  • Cancer Research Organization:

    UK

  • Founded:

    4 February 2002

  • Type:

    Charitable organisation

  • Registration no:

    England and Wales: 1089464 Scotland: SC041666 Isle of Man: 1103

  • Formerly called:

    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, The Cancer Research Campaign

  • Normal body temperature:

    98.6°F, or 37°C

  • Baby has a fever body temperature:

    Exceeds 100.4°F, or 38°C

  • Child has a fever body temperature:

    Exceeds 99.5°F, or 37.5°C

  • Adult has a fever body temperature:

    Exceeds 99 to 99.5°F, or 37.2 to 37.5°C

  • Typhoid fever:

    life-threatening illness

Fever

Fever is also known as hyperthermia, pyrexia, or elevated temperature. It describes a body temperature that’s higher than normal. Fever can affect children and adults. A short-term increase in body temperature can help your body fight off illness. However, a severe fever can be a symptom of a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention. Recognizing a fever can enable you to get treatment and proper monitoring for it. Normal body temperature is typically around 98.6°F, or 37°C. However, the normal body temperature for each person can vary slightly. Normal body temperature may also fluctuate depending on the time of day. It tends to be lower in the morning and higher in the late afternoon and evening. Other factors, such as your menstrual cycle or intense exercise, can also affect body temperature. To check you or your child’s temperature, you can use an oral, rectal, or axillary thermometer. An oral thermometer should be placed under the tongue for three minutes. You may also use an oral thermometer for an axillary, or armpit, reading. Simply place the thermometer in the armpit and cross your arms or your child’s arms over the chest. Wait four to five minutes before removing the thermometer. A rectal thermometer may be used for measuring body temperature in infants. To do this, place a small amount of petroleum jelly on the bulb. Then, lay your baby on their stomach and gently insert the thermometer about 1 inch into your baby’s rectum. Hold the bulb and your baby still for at least three minutes. In general, a baby has a fever when their body temperature exceeds 100.4°F, or 38°C. A child has a fever when their temperature exceeds 99.5°F, or 37.5°C. An adult has a fever when their temperature exceeds 99 to 99.5°F, or 37.2 to 37.5°C.[2]disease Fever

Causes a Fever

Fever occurs when a part of the brain called the hypothalamus shifts the set point of your normal body temperature upward. When this happens, you may feel chilled and add layers of clothing or you may start shivering to generate more body heat. This eventually results in a higher body temperature. There are numerous different conditions that can trigger fevers. Some possible causes include:
  • infections, including the flu, common cold, and pneumonia
  • some immunizations, such as diphtheria or tetanus (in children)
  • teething (in infants)
  • some inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease
  • blood clots
  • extreme sunburn
  • food poisoning
  • some medications, including antibiotics
Depending on the cause of the fever, additional symptoms may include:
  • sweating
  • shivering
  • a headache
  • muscle aches
  • a loss of appetite
  • dehydration
  • general weakness[3] Causes of fever

Typhoid

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. An estimated 5,700 cases occur each year in the United States.  Most cases (up to 75%) are acquired while traveling internationally. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 21.5 million people each year. Typhoid fever can be prevented and can usually be treated with antibiotics. If you are planning to travel outside the United States, you should know about typhoid fever and what steps you can take to protect yourself.[4] Typhoid information

Malaria Disease

Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Malaria produces recurrent attacks of chills and fever. Malaria kills an estimated 660,000 people each year. While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. World health officials are trying to reduce the incidence of malaria by distributing bed nets to help protect people from mosquito bites as they sleep. Scientists around the world are working to develop a vaccine to prevent malaria. If you're traveling to locations where malaria is common, take preventive medicine before, during and after your trip. Many malaria parasites are now immune to the most common drugs used to treat the disease.[5] Malaria Disease

Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is a common disease in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures.[6] Dicription of   Blood pressure

Normal Blood Pressure

Normal blood pressure for adults is defined as a systolic pressure below 120 mmHg and a diastolic pressure below 80 mmHg. It is normal for blood pressures to change when you sleep, wake up, or are excited or nervous. When you are active, it is normal for your blood pressure to increase. However, once the activity stops, your blood pressure returns to your normal baseline range. Blood pressure normally rises with age and body size. Newborn babies often have very low blood pressure numbers that are considered normal for babies, while older teens have numbers similar to adults.[7] Normal blood pressure

Abnormal Blood Pressure

Abnormal increases in blood pressure are defined as having blood pressures higher than 120/80 mmHg. The following table outlines and defines high blood pressure severity levels.[8] Abnormal Blood Pressure

Overview of Heart Disease

Heart disease is a word used to describe many different conditions affecting the heart. Coronary heart disease is a common type of heart disease. This condition results from a buildup of plaque on the inside of the arteries, which reduces blood flow to the heart and increases the risk of a heart attack and other heart complications. Other forms of heart disease include:
  • irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias)
  • congenital heart defects
  • weak heart muscles (cardiomyopathy)
  • heart valve problems
  • heart infections
  • cardiovascular disease[9] Overview heart Disease

Symptoms of heart disease

Heart disease is often called a “silent killer.” Your doctor may not diagnose the disease until you show signs of a heart attack or heart failure. Symptoms of heart disease vary depending on the specific condition. For example, if you have a heart arrhythmia, symptoms may include:
  • a fast or slow heartbeat
  • dizziness
  • lightheadedness
  • chest pain
If you have weak heart muscles, physical activity may cause tiredness and shortness of breath. Dizziness and swelling in the legs, ankle, or feet are also common with cardiomyopathy. Signs and symptoms of a heart infection can include:
  • tiredness
  • coughing
  • skin rash
  • irregular heartbeat
  • swelling in legs and stomach[10] Symptoms Of Heart Diseaes

TB Disease

TB disease is what happens when a person has latent TB and then becomes sick. Sometimes this is known as having active TB or TB disease. Most people with latent TB never become sick. Overall about 5 to 10% of people with latent TB, who do not receive treatment for it, will become sick at some time in their lives.3 Some people become sick soon after they have become infected, before their immune system (the part of the body that fights diseases) can fight the bacteria. Other people don’t get sick at first but they get sick years later when their immune system becomes weak for another reason. This can be because they have an infection, such as infection with HIV, or some other health problem. Some people are known to have a higher risk of becoming ill.4 These include:
  • Infants and children aged less than 4 years
  • People infected within the previous two years
  • People infected with HIV
  • People who have certain illnesses or conditions which affect their immune system, such as people with diabetes, and  people with chronic renal failure.[11]  TB Disease

Hepatitis

The word hepatitis comes from the Ancient Greek word hepar (root word hepat) meaning 'liver', and the Latin itis meaning inflammation. Hepatitis means injury to the liver with inflammation of the liver cells. There are five main types of hepatitis and the type is commonly determined by a laboratory test.[12] Hepatitis Disease

Fast facts on hepatitis

Here are some key points about hepatitis. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. The five main types of hepatitis are caused by viruses.
  • Globally, around 250 million people are affected by hepatitis C and 300 million people are estimated to be hepatitis B carriers.
  • Hepatitis A is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.
  • Hepatitis B is a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Hepatitis C is commonly spread via direct contact with the blood of a person who has the disease.
  • A person can only become infected with hepatitis D if they are already infected with hepatitis B.
  • Person can become infected with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) by drinking contaminated water.
  • Hepatitis that cannot be attributed to one of the viral forms of the disease is called hepatitis X.
  • Hepatitis G is another type of hepatitis caused by a specific virus (HGV).
  • The initial symptoms of hepatitis are similar to those of flu.[13]Facts Of Hepatitis

Cancer

Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. When cancer develops, however, this orderly process breaks down. As cells become more and more abnormal, old or damaged cells survive when they should die, and new cells form when they are not needed. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors. Many cancers form solid tumors, which are masses of tissue. Cancers of the blood, such as leukemias, generally do not form solid tumors. Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. In addition, as these tumors grow, some cancer cells can break off and travel to distant places in the body through the blood or the lymph system and form new tumors far from the original tumor. Unlike malignant tumors, benign tumors do not spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. Benign tumors can sometimes be quite large, however. When removed, they usually don’t grow back, whereas malignant tumors sometimes do. Unlike most benign tumors elsewhere in the body, benign brain tumors can be life threatening.[14]Cancer Disease

Types Of Cancer

There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form. For example, lung cancer starts in cells of the lung, and brain cancer starts in cells of the brain. Cancers also may be described by the type of cell that formed them, such as an epithelial cell or a squamous cell. You can search NCI’s website for information on specific types of cancer based on the cancer’s location in the body or by using our A to Z List of Cancers. We also have collections of information on childhood cancers and cancers in adolescents and young adults.[15] Types of Cancer 


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